——Legal Basis of China's Claim over the Huangyan Island
The Huangyan Island' (15'07'N, 117°51>E) lies in the southeast Zhongsha Islands,Sansha City, Hai'nan Province, China. It is about 160nm from Macclesfield Bank and approximately 130 nm from Luzon Island of the Philippines.2 As the only island above sea level during high tide in the Zhongsha Islands, the Island forms a triangleshaped chain of reefs, rocks and islets, some of which are 0.5m to 3m above water,such as South Rock (1.8m) and North Rock (1.5m),3 encompassing a 15m deep lagoon with a total area of 130km2. China's sovereign jurisdiction over the island had never been challenged until April 30, 1997, when the Filipino navy drove an international amateur radio group away from the island and began to claim sovereignty over the Huangyan Island.4 Since then, the Filipino navy has repeatedly detained and even sunk Chinese fishing boats, arrested Chinese fishermen, and carried out socalled law enforcement activities on the Island. Meanwhile, the Philippine baseline law in 20095 and initiation of the arbitral proceedings against China in 2013 have consistently escalated tension with China.