外层空间电子战和网络战(英文)

——Electronic and Cyber Warfare in Outer Space

作者/编者:UNIDIR
作者单位:
创作年代:2019
出处/来源:UNIDIR
学科分类:军事法学
所属机构:
文献语种:英文

摘要

国家安全对太空系统的日益依赖以及反太空能力的同时出现,使得太空领域比以前更具竞争力和竞争性。特别是,自 2007 年 1 月恢复反卫星(ASAT)演示以来,各国在展示其自身的 ASAT 动能能力方面面临着相当大的竞争压力。

关键词: 太空 深空 卫星 反卫星 太空站 网络战

正文

国家安全对太空系统的日益依赖以及反太空能力的同时出现,使得太空领域比以前更具竞争力和竞争性。特别是,自 2007 年 1 月恢复反卫星(ASAT)演示以来,各国在展示其自身的 ASAT 动能能力方面面临着相当大的竞争安全压力。 幸运的是,从那时起,反卫星演示并没有产生那么多的长寿命空间碎片。最近的印度 ASAT 测试,代号为 Mission Shakti,在足够低的高度进行,碎片将在数周或数月内在大气中燃烧,而不是数十年甚至数百年的空间安全。各国正在从昂贵的类似 ASAT 的选项(例如直接上升导弹)转向开发可能影响太空资产的更实惠、更容易获得的电子和网络战方法。从广义上讲,反太空能力可用于创建临时和永久的太空资产破坏。虽然动能系统会对太空资产造成永久性和不可逆转的破坏,但迄今为止,电子和网络手段对太空系统造成的破坏和破坏大多是暂时的。

An increasing reliance on space systems for national security and the simultaneous emergence of counter-space capabilities is making the space domain more competitive and contested than before. In particular, since anti-satellite (ASAT) demonstrations resumed in January 2007, there has been considerable competitive security pressure on States to demonstrate their own kinetic ASAT capabilities.1 Fortunately, since then, ASAT demonstrations have not generated as much long-lived space debris. The recent Indian ASAT test, codenamed Mission Shakti, took place at an altitude sufficiently low enough that the debris will burn up in the atmosphere within weeks or months, as opposed to decades or even centuries.2However, there have been worrying trends in another facet of space security. States are moving away from expensive ASAT-like options (such as direct-ascent missiles) to developing more affordable and easily available electronic and cyber warfare methods that could affect space assets. Broadly, counter-space capabilities can be used to create temporary, as well as permanent, destruction of space assets. While kinetic systems create permanent and irreversible destruction of space assets, electronic and cyber means have createdmostly temporary disruptions and damage to space systems thus far.

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