海洋法  Law of the Sea (166)

海洋法  Law of the Sea (166)

国际海洋法的相关研究。包括公海、海洋政策、极地研究、国际海洋法文献、海洋开发与利用、海洋生物与环境、海上丝绸之路文献研究、解密档案等等。
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  • DNV《面向2050年的海事展望》(英文)

    这份80页的报告旨在帮助航运业应对面临的双重挑战:一是日益严格的气候变化目标和法规,二是关于未来燃料选择、技术和供应的不确定性。
    作者:DNV 阅读:17 下载:0
  • 澳大利亚海底测绘数据对蓝色经济的价值(英文)

    海底测绘是一项鲜为人知的活动,但对许多行业来说,这些数据至关重要。 主要例子包括: – 商业捕鱼和水产养殖:运营商需要海底测绘数据来进行安全航行,指导捕鱼和选择水产养殖地点,并尽量减少相关的环境影响。 – 海上发电:海底测绘数据提供了有关海底特征的有用信息,可为最佳现场剖面提供信息,为获得环境和规划批准以及建立所需基础设施(如管道和风力涡轮机)提供证据。 – 旅游业:海底测绘对于旅游业经营者安全航行和减少与锚地相关的环境影响至关重要。
    作者:澳大利亚地球科学局 阅读:18 下载:0
  • Wells涉外文献检索:最新国际海洋动态与文献 2022年1月第1期(1.1-1.15)

    本期重点:美国国务院发布《海洋中的界限》系列报告;法国海军海事信息合作与宣传中心(MICA Center)发布《2021年全球海上安全报告》;国际可再生能源机构(IRENA) 《2050年实现航运业脱碳的途径》报告;重点涉海论文《海洋温度在2021年创下历史新高》。
    作者:Wells 阅读:172 下载:0
  • 联合国教科文组织《全球海洋观测系统2030战略》(中文)

    联合国教科文组织2019年发布的《全球海洋观测系统2030战略》指出,在当前全球变暖和海洋灾害频发的背景下,各国对全球海洋观测的需求大大增加,因此需要建立一个真正一体化的全球海洋观测系统。
    作者:联合国教科文组织 阅读:27 下载:0
  • 美国海岸警卫队2020年报告:非法、未报告和不受管制的捕鱼战略展望(英文)

    非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕捞是对美国国家利益的普遍安全威胁。非法、无管制和未报告的捕捞活动破坏了国际协定和渔业保护措施,危害了全球粮食安全,对脆弱的沿海国家造成了明显的不稳定影响。
    作者:美国海岸警卫队 阅读:57 下载:0
  • 从“蓝色增长”向“可持续的蓝色经济”转型——欧盟海洋经济可持续发展方案(英文)

    如果将全球蓝色经济比作一国国民经济的话 ,它将成为世界上的第七大经济体,而海 洋作为一个经济实体也将成为七国集团的一员。
    作者:欧盟委员会 阅读:54 下载:1
  • 美国国会研究服务部(CRS)报告《美中南海、东海战略竞争》(英文)

    在过去的几年里,南海已经成为美中战略竞争的舞台。中国在南海的行动,包括在其占领的南沙群岛上进行大规模的岛屿建设和基地建设活动,以及中国海上力量为支持其主权声明而针对菲律宾和越南等邻国的主权主张所采取的一系列行动,加剧了美国观察家的担忧。
    作者:美国国会研究服务部 阅读:77 下载:0
  • 美国《北极研究计划2022-2026》(英文)

    2022-2026年北极研究计划优先考虑四个领域:社区复原力和健康、北极系统相互作用、可持续经济和生计,以及风险管理和减灾。
    作者:Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) 阅读:153 下载:0
  • OceanCare《2021年噪声与深海采矿报告》(英文)

    本报告概述了深海采矿(DSM)活动产生的水下噪声排放及其对海洋生物的潜在影响的最新知识。报告还总结了水下噪声的现有法律和政策框架,包括其在该地区DSM活动管理方面的缺陷。最后,本文就填补知识空白的必要步骤提出了建议,并为DSM活动产生的噪音的决策奠定了坚实的基础。
    作者:OceanCare 阅读:78 下载:0
  • 管辖北极海域的法律是否应该适应不断变化的气候环境?(英文)

    就多边协议的制定而言,北极海域的法律制度长期以来一直处于次要地位。
    作者:加利福尼亚西部国际法杂志 阅读:95 下载:13
  • 《海洋法公约》和北极?(英文)

    1982年通过的《联合国海洋法公约》据说是海洋宪法。由于该法律文书没有明确提及北极,因此可能会提出一个问题,即其适用范围是否延伸到这些北部水域?
    作者:比利时国际法评论 阅读:87 下载:1
  • 俄罗斯北极航行的法律制度(英文)

    自从 1648 年证实了东北航道的存在,并且在维特·白令 (1725-1728) 和大北方探险 (1733-1743) 的远征之后完成了北部海岸线的测绘,“欧亚大陆上空的北极海上航运大陆一直在不断发展,首先是俄罗斯帝国,然后是苏联,现在是俄罗斯联邦。
    作者:J. OF TRANSNATIONAL LAW & POLICY 阅读:82 下载:1
  • 使用系统保护规划支持海洋空间规划并实现跨界本格拉生态系统的海洋保护目标(英文)

    近年来,人类对海洋空间的需求和竞争显着增加。 这种扩大的人类活动导致栖息地退化、物种灭绝和生态系统服务交付受损。 因此,通过为生物多样性和生态过程服务以维持人类福祉所依赖的生态系统健康、功能和服务,越来越被认为是全球优先事项。
    作者:Ocean and Coastal Management 阅读:63 下载:0
  • 立陶宛海海洋空间试点计划(英文)

    立陶宛海域面积不超过7000平方公里,包括库尔斯环礁湖面积。 它与北部的拉脱维亚海域、南部的俄罗斯联邦(加里宁格勒州)和西部的瑞典接壤。
    作者:BaltSeaPlan 阅读:71 下载:0
  • 联合国报告《安理会与气候变化》(英文)

    在 2021 年 2 月 23 日安全理事会关于气候与安全的公开辩论开始时,世界著名的博物学家大卫·阿滕伯勒发布了一条视频信息,敦促全球合作应对气候危机。 “请不要搞错。 气候变化是人类有史以来面临的最大安全威胁。”他说。
    作者:联合国 阅读:174 下载:0
  • 人类对世界海洋累积影响的时空变化(英文)

    人类对海洋的压力被认为在全球范围内正在增加,但我们对它们的累积变化模式知之甚少。
    作者:NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 阅读:85 下载:1
  • 人类对世界海洋累积影响的时空变化(英文)

    人类对海洋的压力被认为在全球范围内正在增加,但我们对它们的累积变化模式知之甚少。
    作者:NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 阅读:85 下载:1
  • 设得兰群岛海洋空间规划的回顾与评价(英文)

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 是一门快速发展的学科,由欧盟委员会提议的指令表示,旨在为欧盟水域和沿海地区的 MSP 和综合沿海管理创建一个通用框架。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:86 下载:0
  • 区域海洋空间规划——数据收集和制图过程(英文)

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 越来越被认为是海洋生态系统可持续管理的重要工具 。 虽然 MSP 有多种定义,但联合国教科文组织将其定义为“分析和分配海洋区域人类活动的空间和时间分布的公共过程,以实现通常通过政治过程指定的生态、经济和社会目标”。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 远洋保护区:海洋保护中缺失的维度(英文)

    远洋海洋中的保护区比地球上任何其他生态系统都要少。 尽管越来越多的人支持将海洋保护区 (MPA) 作为远洋保护的工具,但对动态远洋环境中基于地点的管理的生态、后勤和经济可行性也存在许多批评。
    作者:Trends in Ecology and Evolution 阅读:87 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划建模:工具、概念和应用(英文)

    本报告总结了将建模融入海洋空间规划 (MSP) 和战略环境评估 (SEA) 的最重要方面,作为在欧盟 BaltSeaPlan (BSP) 项目框架内进行的评估的一部分。
    作者:BaltSeaPlan 阅读:89 下载:0
  • 南极洲与新海洋法(英文)

    本文的目的是考察新海洋法对南极法律制度的影响。
    作者:CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 阅读:77 下载:0
  • 评估沿海地区气候变化脆弱性的方法(英文)

    越来越多的欧盟人口居住在沿海地区。 大约一半的欧盟人口居住在距海岸 50 公里或更短的地方(ESTAT,2009),其中 19% 的欧盟人口(8600 万人)居住在 10 公里的沿海地带(EEA,2006)。 未来这些数字很可能会增加。 总的来说,这既对沿海资源提出了日益增长的需求,也增加了人们对沿海灾害的暴露程度(Sterr 等,2003)。
    作者:ETC CCA 阅读:85 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:概念、现行做法和与其他管理方法的联系(英文)

    近年来,海洋空间规划 (MSP) 作为一种新的范式,以实现更综合的、基于生态系统的海洋区域管理,已经变得相当重要。各国,特别是在西北欧使用密集的海域,都在开发和应用MSP。
    作者:Fanny Douvere 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:实现和评估整合(英文)

    沿海国家正在以越来越快的速度进行海洋空间规划 (MSP)。一些 MSP 努力旨在规划国家以下一级的区域,而另一些则在国家专属经济区内从海岸延伸至 200 海里。
    作者:Marine Science 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:大加勒比地区生态系统管理的第一步(英文)

    大加勒比地区沿海生态系统的迅速衰退正在进入第五个十年。加勒比海洋实验室协会 (AMLC) 的实验室已经完成了一些记录这种下降及其原因的最佳科学。加勒比保护先驱们对这种趋势感到震惊,建立了遍布整个地区的海洋保护区 (MPA)。
    作者:Biología Tropical 阅读:75 下载:0
  • 欧盟成员国海洋骨料提取法规(英文)

    本文简要回顾了与欧盟八个成员国的海洋骨料 (MA) 运营授权相关的法规和程序。
    作者:Journal o f Coastal Research 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 立陶宛波罗的海沿岸石油泄漏敏感性绘图(英文)

    本研究为立陶宛沿海地区开发了一个综合环境评估工具,该工具充分考虑了D-6石油钻井平台、波罗的海东南部船舶交通以及Būtingė石油码头运营所造成的重大石油泄漏风险。
    作者:BALTICA 阅读:84 下载:9
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 知而不为:优先保护区的选择与研究-实施差距(英文)

    保护评估是一门迅速发展的学科,其既定目标是设计保护区网络,通过将优先区域与退化或破坏它们的活动分开,代表并确保自然(即物种、栖息地和环境过程)的持久性。尽管如此,尽管新兴的科学文献不断完善这些分配保护资源的技术,但人们普遍认为,保护评估很少转化为实际保护自然的行动。我们回顾了同行评审期刊上的保护评估文献,并对这些研究的作者进行了问卷调查。同行评审的科学文献中公布的三分之二的保护评估没有提供保护行动,主要是因为大多数研究人员从未计划实施。Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it is widely believed that conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions that actually conserve nature.We reviewed the conservation assessment literature in peer-reviewed journals and conducted survey questionnaires of the authors of these studies. Two-thirds of conservation assessments published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature do not deliver conservation action, primarily because most researchers never plan for implementation.
    作者:Conservation Biology 阅读:62 下载:0
  • 调查如何在海洋空间规划中解决累积影响的备选方案

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 是当前欧洲、英国和苏格兰环境议程的一个重要方面。欧盟委员会最近发布的指令草案旨在为欧盟水域和沿海地区的 MSP 和综合沿海管理建立一个共同框架,这表明海洋和沿海水域的可持续管理是一个紧迫的问题。设得兰群岛海洋空间规划 (SMSP) 的制定于 2006 年由苏格兰政府发起,是渐进式区域海洋空间规划的一个例子。 SMSP 成功地提供了一个政策框架和基线空间数据来指导海洋开发的布局。通过政策,提出建议,提出方向,突出发展机遇。根据基于生态系统的风险评估和对现有海洋活动和用途的广泛了解,绘制设得兰群岛周围累积压力的模型是确定行动领域和制定海洋政策的下一步。该模型可用于可比较的海洋计划区域,可以访问全面的地图活动数据和当地专业知识,以开发自己的方法来解决累积影响。这项研究还符合海洋战略框架指令,该指令要求分析对海洋水域环境状况的主要压力和影响,包括人类活动,其中包括主要的累积和协同效应。 Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.
    作者:Ocean & Coastal Management 阅读:85 下载:0
  • 内部生态系统反馈增强了波罗的海固氮蓝藻的繁殖并使管理复杂化(英文)

    Cyanobacteria capable of biological fixation of dissolved atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2 fixation) form extensive blooms which have been a recurring phenomenon in the Baltic Sea since at least the 1960s (1). They are noxious and relevant to the ecosystem and to society because of the formation of a conspicuous surface scum, toxicity, and large nitrogen inputs through N2 fixation. Traditionally, phosphorus alone has been considered as the limiting nutrient for N2-fixing cyanobacteria.In this article we present how elemental cycles of nitrogen and oxygen are interlinked with the phosphorus cycle in basin-wide and long-term processes. To manage cyanobacteria blooms, we must resolve the relative importance of nutrient supply and internal biogeochemical processes.
    作者:BioOne 阅读:72 下载:4
  • 欧洲联盟的综合海洋政策——巩固沿海和海洋信息以支持海洋空间规划(英文)

    Launch of the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union in 2007 served as important factor that stimulates consolidation of coastal and marine information to support policy implementation. Policy’s action plan provides approaches for maritime governance, research and planning relevant to information. In particular, roadmap for maritime spatial planning stimulates development of coastal and marine GIS. Article reviews the current general status of coastal and marine systems and puts them in the context of the policy actions. Main focus is on formation of geospatial information platform for integrated assessment and ecosystem-based management of coastal and marine areas. Recent developments in data, indicator and information systems are summarized in European perspective: better characterization of maritime space and marine ecosystems, development of GMES Marine Core service and related in situ data collection;data harmonisation, interoperability and access, promoted by Shared Environmental Information System principles.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:82 下载:0
  • 欧洲联盟的综合海洋政策——巩固沿海和海洋信息以支持海洋空间规划(英文)

    Launch of the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union in 2007 served as important factor that stimulates consolidation of coastal and marine information to support policy implementation. Policy’s action plan provides approaches for maritime governance, research and planning relevant to information. In particular, roadmap for maritime spatial planning stimulates development of coastal and marine GIS. Article reviews the current general status of coastal and marine systems and puts them in the context of the policy actions. Main focus is on formation of geospatial information platform for integrated assessment and ecosystem-based management of coastal and marine areas. Recent developments in data, indicator and information systems are summarized in European perspective: better characterization of maritime space and marine ecosystems, development of GMES Marine Core service and related in situ data collection;data harmonisation, interoperability and access, promoted by Shared Environmental Information System principles.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:82 下载:0
  • 波罗的海地区海洋空间规划多层次协商手册(英文)

    The sea is a complex and fragile ecosystem providing goods and services that are used by many actors: sectors (e.g. energy, fishery, shipping, tourism) and nations (e.g. 9 countries around the Baltic). Multiple interventions of these actors, often not taking account of actions undertaken by others, cause cumulative processes in the ecosystem leading to often irreversible changes in the marine resources. Even within the same sector interests may differ depending on the “level”, i.e. micro-economic and macro-economic interests / perspectives. Sometimes strong regional interests can prevail over national ones and vice versa. Through complex pathways this may again affect the ecosystem services provided by the sea.
    作者:PartiSEApate 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 作为适应性海洋空间规划基础的治理基线(英文)

    A marine spatial planning (MSP) initiative—if to be successful—has to be rooted in a thorough understanding of the tradition and structures of the governance system in the area targeted for the initiative. After decades of a mainly sectoral approach towards maritime affairs, governments began to recognised the need for a governance framework that applies a more integrated approach to maritime policy. The new Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union is only one example for such a changed way of policy and decision making. The assembly of a governance baseline can help to identify the crucial hindering and success factors for the implementation of MSP.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:96 下载:0
  • 评估和排序全球海洋生态系统对人为威胁的脆弱性(英文)

    Human activities now affect nearly every marine ecosystem (e.g., Glover & Smith 2003; POC 2003). The number and variety of threats can be overwhelming to management and conservation efforts. Mapping where threats occur is important for management, but does not explicitly account for differences in the extent and nature of ecosystem responses to threats. For example, bottom-trawl fisheries have significantly more severe and long-lasting impacts on epibenthic communities living on hard versus soft substrates and even greater impact with increasing water depth because individual growth rates decrease and recovery times increase (Watling & Norse 1998; Thrush & Dayton 2002). Understanding these differences in ecosystem response is critical to knowing which threats have the biggest impact on different ecosystems and how to best address them at different scales. Quantifying these differences allows threats to be ranked based on the severity of their impact.
    作者:Conservation Biology 阅读:88 下载:0
  • 欧盟海洋战略框架指令(MSFD)和海洋空间规划(MSP):哪个对英国的海洋政策更具主导性和实用性?(英文)

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the contribution to UK marine governance of two recent EU initiatives: the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP). MSFD imposed a duty on Member States to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in four regional seas,while MSP required Member States to replace their fragmented, sector-based system of maritime decision making with an integrated approach. This paper explains MSFD and MSP, examines their relationship, and compares their practicability, concluding that MSP is both the more dominant and the more practicable instrument, reflecting the UK's preference for sustainable development over conservationism in marine policy. A recent proposal by the European Commission to make MSP and integrated coastal management a Directive reinforces the UK position.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 罗马尼亚黑海沿岸鲱鱼的种群参数和开发率估计(英文)

    Sex ratio, morphometric characteristics, age and growth for Pontic shad from Romanian Black Sea Coast were examined. A total of 2.133 individuals were caught between March 2012 and September 2013. Female : male sex ratio was 0.62. According to the age reading, distribution varied form II to V year. The von Bertalanffy equation and growth performance index were determined by ESP software in Pontic shad. The asymptotic length (L∞ = L infinity) of Pontic shad generated by the ELEFAN I method, after introducing total length data for the two years of study, was 41.5. The natural mortality instantaneous coefficient (M) of the entire Pontic shad population, calculated according to Pauly’s empirical equation, using the growth parameters of the Von Bertalanffy formula and the mean annual temperature of the two study years of 13oC, recorded the following values: M = 0.585 in 2012 and M = 0.639 in 2013. According with the resultants, it is recommended to perform a sustainable fishing which allows the capture of legal-sized of fish.
    作者:sciendo 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 海上船舶交通对海鸟的影响:对海洋保护和空间规划的启示(英文)

    Spatial planning of anthropogenic activities in the offshore zone is currently in progress in many countries worldwide. Most activities in marine ecosystems are in some way related to shipping. Disturbance by ships can be a major threat to birds, through affects on behavior,reproduction, and fitness of individuals in colonies (e.g., Burger 1998, see review in Carney and Sydeman 1999), as well as on foraging or resting habitats (e.g.,Rodgers and Schwikert 2003, Stolen 2003, Kaiser et al.2006 ). However, the effects of ship traffic on seabirds are still too poorly understood to allow for either proper spatial planning or conservation management actions.
    作者:the Ecological Society of America 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 海上船舶交通对海鸟的影响:对海洋保护和空间规划的启示(英文)

    Spatial planning of anthropogenic activities in the offshore zone is currently in progress in many countries worldwide. Most activities in marine ecosystems are in some way related to shipping. Disturbance by ships can be a major threat to birds, through affects on behavior,reproduction, and fitness of individuals in colonies (e.g., Burger 1998, see review in Carney and Sydeman 1999), as well as on foraging or resting habitats (e.g.,Rodgers and Schwikert 2003, Stolen 2003, Kaiser et al.2006 ). However, the effects of ship traffic on seabirds are still too poorly understood to allow for either proper spatial planning or conservation management actions.
    作者:the Ecological Society of America 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 基于生态系统的海洋渔业空间规划和管理:为什么以及如何进行?(英文)

    In a 2009 paper by Worm et al., fisheries biologists and conservation biologists found common ground in recommending spatial planning to benefit marine fisheries and biodiversity. Frontiers on land and in the ocean have few users relative to resources; as this ratio increases, governance suitable to the frontier no longer works because people’s interests collide and biodiversity is lost. Increasing ocean uses and troubled fisheries are reasons to shift to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning and management, which reflect patterns and processes of both fish and people. Protecting places can eliminate fragmentation, spatial and temporal mismatches caused by “siloed” sectoral management, where agencies that regulate different sectors in the same places largely ignore the needs of other sectors. Modern fishery management does not reflect the heterogeneity of fish populations and human uses. By reducing fishing mortality to zero, one spatial tool, marine reserves, restores large female fishes, which produce more eggs, and aids recovery of species in which females become males at larger sizes. Reserves can also maintain fishes’ genetic structure. Australia created the “gold standard” for marine spatial planning in Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, a mosaic of ecosystems with differing availability to fishing. Other nations are adopting this approach. Even the best spatial plans will have problems that cross ecosystem boundaries, but advantages accrue to fishermen who stay within designated areas and let fish come to them. Areas can be deliberately configured to improve both biodiversity conservation and fishery yields and to save on fishermen’s fuel costs.
    作者:BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE 阅读:79 下载:0
  • BaltSeaPlan报告9:为波美拉尼亚湾和阿科纳盆地制定试点海洋空间计划(英文)

    The Baltic Sea is a dynamic economic region with growing competition between a wide range of sea uses. At the same time limited sea space and the valuable sensitive marine and coastal ecosystem call for a considered approach to future development. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is a tool for facilitating this at various spatial levels. Its purpose is to find solutions for the sustainable use of maritime space balancing social economic and ecological interests in a manner that does justice to all three. MSP achieves this by taking a cooperative and participatory approach involving various stakeholders.
    作者:European Regional Development Fund 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 南非开普植物区陆地生态系统生境变化的现状和未来对生物多样性的威胁(英文)

    The formulation of an effective strategic plan for biodiversity conservation in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) requires an assessment of the current situation with regard to habitat transformation, and an explicit framework for predicting the likelihood of remaining habitat (i.e. that potentially available for conservation) being transformed. This paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of the current and future extent of three important factors that threaten biodiversity in the CFR: cultivation for intensive agriculture (including commercial forestry plantations), urbanisation, and stands of invasive (self-sown) alien trees and shrubs.The extent of habitat transformation was mapped at the scale of 1:250,000, using primarily satellite imagery. We compared models derived from a rule-based approach relying on expert knowledge and a regression-tree technique to identify other areas likely to be affected by these factors in future.
    作者:Biological Conservation 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 南大洋的保护模式与过程:爱德华王子群岛海洋保护区的设计(英文)

    South Africa is currently proclaiming a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of its sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. The objectives of the MPA are to: 1) contribute to a national and global representative system of MPAs, 2) serve as a scientific reference point to inform future management, 3) contribute to the recovery of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), and 4) reduce the bird bycatch of the toothfish fishery, particularly of albatrosses and petrels. This study employs systematic conservation planning methods to delineate a MPA within the EEZ that will conserve biodiversity patterns and processes within sensible management boundaries, while minimizing conflict with the legal toothfish fishery. After collating all available distributional data on species, benthic habitats and ecosystem processes, we used C-Plan software to delineate a MPA with three management zones: four IUCN Category Ia reserves (13% of EEZ); two Conservation Zones (21% of EEZ); and three Category IV reserves (remainder of EEZ). Compromises between conservation target achievement and the area required by the MPA are apparent in the final reserve design. The proposed MPA boundaries are expected to change over time as new data become available and as impacts of climate change become more evident.
    作者:Antarctic Science 阅读:79 下载:0
  • 气候变化对地中海沿岸地区的影响(英文)

    Climate change is widely recognised as a serious threat to the world’s environment. In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC, 1996a] concluded that: “the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on climate change” and asserted that climate is expected to continue to change in the future. More recently Tett et al. [1999] argued that the increase of the superficial temperature of the earth-atmosphere system is nearly entirely correlated with anthropic pressures on the climate system. The fact that these changes are likely to occur at a faster rate than any that have occurred during mankind’s recorded history, is also generally agreed upon.
    作者:Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei 阅读:112 下载:0
  • 基于德国北海经验的多种海洋用途、政策领域和行动者背景下的海洋空间规划挑战(英文)

    Today, increasing use intensity and establishment of new sea uses such as offshore wind farming can be observed in coastal and marine waters. This development also increases the pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems. The exclusive economic zone of the German North Sea can serve as an example for this development, in particular illustrating the need to combine multiple uses and societal demands within a given sea area. In order to deal with the resulting conflicts and cumulative impacts,new planning tools and integrated approaches to planning and management are developing. While the sea becomes a contested but at the same time politically recognised area,also conflicts rooted in different perceptions, values and attitudes of coastal people can be observed. In order to deal with the current challenges in marine areas, marine spatial planning and similar tools for integrated planning need to be developed in the form of communication processes,which link diverse sets of information and span a dialogue between groups of society and across spatial scales including the transnational dimension.
    作者:Reg Environ Change 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 评估人类活动造成的栖息地风险,为沿海和海洋空间规划提供信息:伯利兹的示范(英文)

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize.Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of highrisk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses.Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.
    作者:Environmental Research Letters 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 评估人类活动造成的栖息地风险,为沿海和海洋空间规划提供信息:伯利兹的示范(英文)

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize.Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of highrisk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses.Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.
    作者:Environmental Research Letters 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 波罗的海海洋资源创新和可持续利用评估(英文)

    Innovative approaches to the sustainable use of marine resources have recently received more and more attention as part of new European Commission initiatives.As one of the operational proposals under the Innovation Union and Resource Efficient Europe flagships of the e u 2 020 strategy, the strategy for a sustainable bioeconomy in Europe was adopted by the European Commission in February 2012. It aims towards the development of a more innovative and low-emissions economy, which uses biological resources from the land and sea as inputs to food and feed, industrial and energy production as well as bio-based industrial and environmental protection processes. The strategy is coupled with the Commission’s Integrated Maritime Policy. More specifically w ith the "Blue Growth” initiative, which aims to harness the untapped potential of Europe’s oceans, seas and coasts for job and growth whilst safeguarding the services healthy and resilient marine and coastal ecosystems provide. It is therefore linked w ith the e u Marine Strategy Framework Directive to reach good environmental status by 2021.
    作者:Maritime Institute in Gda?sk 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 在巴斯克大陆架(比斯开湾)上选择合适区域安装波浪能转换器(WECs)的海洋空间规划方法(英文)

    Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the wave energy production.As a new use of the ocean, a Spatial Planning approach is proposed to provide a mechanism to achieve consensus among the sectors operating at present, together with the identification of the most suitable locations to accommodate the Wave Energy Converters (WECs), in the near future. In this contribution: (a) a methodology for the establishment of a Suitability Index (SI) for WECs installation location selection is proposed; (b) the spatial distribution of the SI is mapped; and finally, (c) the accessible wave energy potential has been calculated for the entire Basque continental shelf. As the SI represents the appropriateness of several locations for WECs installation, while minimizing the conflict with other marine uses, the first step in the development of the analysis involved gathering all such information that may be likely to determine, or influence, the decision-making process. Seventeen information layers (among them 10 technical, 4 environmental, and 3 socioeconomical), corresponding to the identified key factors, including the theoretical wave energy in the study area, were generated to define their spatial distribution. Geographical Information System algorithms were used then in the assessment of the total theoretical energy potential and the accessible theoretical energy potential; these were calculated excluding areas where conflicts with other uses occur, such as navigation regulations or designated Marine Protected Areas.
    作者:Coastal Management 阅读:68 下载:0
  • 在巴斯克大陆架(比斯开湾)上选择合适区域安装波浪能转换器(WECs)的海洋空间规划方法(英文)

    Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the wave energy production.As a new use of the ocean, a Spatial Planning approach is proposed to provide a mechanism to achieve consensus among the sectors operating at present, together with the identification of the most suitable locations to accommodate the Wave Energy Converters (WECs), in the near future. In this contribution: (a) a methodology for the establishment of a Suitability Index (SI) for WECs installation location selection is proposed; (b) the spatial distribution of the SI is mapped; and finally, (c) the accessible wave energy potential has been calculated for the entire Basque continental shelf. As the SI represents the appropriateness of several locations for WECs installation, while minimizing the conflict with other marine uses, the first step in the development of the analysis involved gathering all such information that may be likely to determine, or influence, the decision-making process. Seventeen information layers (among them 10 technical, 4 environmental, and 3 socioeconomical), corresponding to the identified key factors, including the theoretical wave energy in the study area, were generated to define their spatial distribution. Geographical Information System algorithms were used then in the assessment of the total theoretical energy potential and the accessible theoretical energy potential; these were calculated excluding areas where conflicts with other uses occur, such as navigation regulations or designated Marine Protected Areas.
    作者:Coastal Management 阅读:68 下载:0
  • 人类对海洋生态系统影响的全球地图(英文)

    The management and conservation of the world’s oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain,particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.
    作者:Science 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 用于评估海洋空间规划方案的GIS建模框架:德国专属经济区海上风电场和水产养殖的协同定位(英文)

    The concept of co-location of marine areas receives an increased significance in the light of sustainable development in the already heavily used offshore marine realm. Within this study, different spatial colocation scenarios for the coupling of offshore aquacultures and wind farms are evaluated in order to support efficient and sustainable marine spatial management strategies. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) techniques were combined to index suitable co-sites in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea. The MCE was based on criteria such as temperature, salinity or oxygen. In total, 13 possible aquaculture candidates (seaweed, bivalves, fish and crustaceans) were selected for the scenario configuration. The GIS modelling framework proved to be powerful in defining potential co-location sites. The aquaculture candidate oarweed (Laminaria digitata) revealed the highest suitability scores at 10–20 m depth from April to June, followed by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) at 20–30 m depth and dulse (Palmaria palmata) and Sea belt (Saccharina latissima) at 0–10 m depth between April and June. In summary, results showed several wind farms were de facto suitable sites for aquaculture since they exhibited high suitability scores for Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems combining fish species, bivalves and seaweeds. The present results illustrate how synergies may be realised between competing needs of both offshore wind energy and offshore IMTA in the German EEZ of the North Sea. This might offer guidance to stakeholders and assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable sites for pilot projects using IMTA techniques.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
  • 用于评估海洋空间规划方案的GIS建模框架:德国专属经济区海上风电场和水产养殖的协同定位(英文)

    The concept of co-location of marine areas receives an increased significance in the light of sustainable development in the already heavily used offshore marine realm. Within this study, different spatial colocation scenarios for the coupling of offshore aquacultures and wind farms are evaluated in order to support efficient and sustainable marine spatial management strategies. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) techniques were combined to index suitable co-sites in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea. The MCE was based on criteria such as temperature, salinity or oxygen. In total, 13 possible aquaculture candidates (seaweed, bivalves, fish and crustaceans) were selected for the scenario configuration. The GIS modelling framework proved to be powerful in defining potential co-location sites. The aquaculture candidate oarweed (Laminaria digitata) revealed the highest suitability scores at 10–20 m depth from April to June, followed by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) at 20–30 m depth and dulse (Palmaria palmata) and Sea belt (Saccharina latissima) at 0–10 m depth between April and June. In summary, results showed several wind farms were de facto suitable sites for aquaculture since they exhibited high suitability scores for Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems combining fish species, bivalves and seaweeds. The present results illustrate how synergies may be realised between competing needs of both offshore wind energy and offshore IMTA in the German EEZ of the North Sea. This might offer guidance to stakeholders and assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable sites for pilot projects using IMTA techniques.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
  • 全球生物多样性热点——南非开普省植物区保护计划(英文)

    We produced a conservation plan that achieved conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the species- and endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Features given quantitative conservation targets were land classes, localities of Proteaceae and selected vertebrate (freshwater fish, amphibians and reptiles) species, population sizes for medium- and large-sized mammals, and six types of spatial surrogates for ecological and evolutionary processes. The plan was developed in several stages using C-Plan, a decision support system linked to a geographic information system. Accepting the existing reserve system as part of the plan, we first selected spatially fixed surrogates for biodiversity processes; then we included those planning units that were essential for achieving targets for land classes, Proteaceae and vertebrate species; next we included areas required to accommodate population and design targets for large and medium-sized mammals; we then selected planning units required to conserve entire upland–lowland and macroclimatic gradients; and finally we resolved the options for achieving remaining targets while also consolidating the design of conservation areas. The result was a system of conservation areas, requiring, in addition to the existing reserve system, 52% of the remaining extant habitat in the planning domain, as well as restorable habitat, that will promote the persistence and continued diversification of much of the region’s biota in the face of ongoing habitat loss and climate change. After describing the planning process, we discuss implementation priorities in relation to conservation value and vulnerability to habitat loss, as well as socio-economic, political and institutional constraints and opportunities.
    作者:Elsevier 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 2018年苏格兰国家海洋计划执行情况三年报告(英文)

    Scotland’s first statutory National Marine Plan (the Plan) was adopted and published in March 2015. The policies and objectives of the Plan set out how Scottish Ministers intend marine resources to be used and managed out to 200 nautical miles. It supports development and activity in Scotland’s seas while incorporating environmental protection into marine decision-making to achieve sustainable management. The Plan applies to all decisions taken by public authorities which affect this marine area.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:94 下载:0
  • 生物多样性丧失对海洋生态系统服务功能的影响(英文)

    Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration of biodiversity, in contrast, increased productivity fourfold and decreased variability by 21%, on average. We conclude that marine biodiversity loss is increasingly impairing the ocean's capacity to provide food, maintain water quality, and recover from perturbations. Yet available data suggest that at this point, these trends are still reversible.
    作者:SCIENCE 阅读:111 下载:0
  • 欧洲海岸带综合管理战略:一般原则和政策选择(英文)

    The European Commission’s Demonstration Programme on Integrated Coastal Zone Management was launched in 1996 as a joint initiative of DGs XI, XIV and XVI, with substantial contributions from other DGs, particularly XII and the JRC, as well as the EEA. The Programme is based around 35 local and regional projects* to demonstrate the application of ICZM, a series of cross-cutting thematic analyses and research projects, complemented by regular meetings with an experts group (consisting of national experts and representatives of local administrations, of socio-economic actors, and of NGOs) and by extensive contact with other outside organizations.
    作者:欧委会 阅读:118 下载:0
  • 2018年欧委会研究报告:蓝色增长的海洋空间规划(英文)

    The relation between MSP and Blue Growth is multi-faceted and not yet fully explored. Of course, MSP aims to reduce or avoid conflicts between a variety of economic and noneconomic functions. But it is also a tool to identify and give the suitable room to new and changing spatial uses. MSP may be used to open new economic potentials by fostering synergies between different uses. Against this background, this report aims to provide information on how MSP can help Member States deliver sustainable growth for their maritime economies. It provides Member States with practical guidance in three distinct aspects of MSP: 1) How to develop a vision for maritime space that can be effectively used in MSP? 2) What kind of future trends impact on sector development and how do they influence the MSP process? 3) How can MSP authorities monitor whether they are on the right track with their MSPobjectives?These three distinct aspects were developed as stand-alone documents. In addition, this report lays out the connections between them and some general findings.
    作者:欧盟委员会 阅读:100 下载:0
  • 海洋保护报告系列:综合海岸带管理的国际审查(英文)

    The Oceans Conservation Report Series is a newly established series published by Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), as part of the 1998 International Year of the Oceans' celebrations. This report series is intended to serve a broad audience interested in coastal and oceans issues affecting Canada and the global coastal community. The subject matter reflects DFO's evolving interests and policies, pursuant to the Oceans Act (1996), in three key areas: Integrated Coastal Zone Management; Marine Protected Areas; and Marine Environmental Quality.
    作者:加拿大渔业和海洋部 阅读:107 下载:0
  • 粮农组织立法研究:建立和加强海岸综合管理的国家法律框架(英文)

    More than a decade ago the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) published Legal and Institutional Aspects of Integrated Coastal Area Management in National Legislation1. The preface to that publication pointed out that integrated coastal area management law was a relatively new the field and that few jurisdictions had comprehensive legal frameworks to promote integrated coastal management. The situation has changed dramatically since then. Integrated coastal management (ICM) is now widely accepted throughout the world as the best approach to dealing with coastal issues and the 1990s saw a proliferation of legislative reform processes throughout the world aimed at supporting the implementation of ICM. This trend remains strong and many countries, including most of the Member States of the European Union, are in the process of strengthening the legislative basis for ICM.
    作者:FAO 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 2016年《伯利兹沿海地区综合管理计划》(英文)

    The coastal zone is one of Belize’s greatest assets, and is vital to the Belizean way of life. Belize’s highly productive coastal zone is the resource base that supports a broad range of economic activities and contributes significantly to the environmental, social and cultural fabric of our country. It is therefore imperative that we are able to identify and implement informed management solutions that will aid us as a people and a government to safeguard the wealth of coastal and marine resources from which we all benefit. The National Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Belize is a comprehensive and cross-sectoral planning framework that offers robust strategic solutions that build on the national agenda for growth, sustainable development and improved resources management. It links the economic potential and ecological value of the coastal zone with a balanced mix of utilization and conservation, thereby promoting the long-term viability of the Belizean coastal zone. Equally important is that the Plan will ensure that we strengthen the governance of coastal resources by effectively facilitating the transition from sectoral management regimes to coordinated, cross-sectoral decision-making processes at local and national levels.
    作者:Coastal Zone Management Authority 阅读:86 下载:0
  • 1994年《智利海岸带与海洋利用政策》(西班牙文)

    Que el borde costero del litoral, esto es aquella franja del territorio que comprende los terrenos de playa fiscales, la playa, las bahías, golfos, estrechos y canales interiores, y el mar territorial de la República, conforma una unidad geográfica y física de especial importancia para el desarrollo integral y armónico del país.
    作者:智利政府 阅读:99 下载:0
  • 2003年澳大利亚《大堡礁珊瑚海洋公园海域多用途区划》(英文)

    The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (the Act) provides for the establishment, control, care and development of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (the Marine Park). The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (the Authority) is responsible for the management of the Marine Park.The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 is the primary planning instrument for the conservation and management of the Marine Park.
    作者:DAVID KEMP Minister for the Environment and Heritage 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2003年澳大利亚《大堡礁珊瑚海洋公园海域多用途区划》(英文)

    The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (the Act) provides for the establishment, control, care and development of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (the Marine Park). The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (the Authority) is responsible for the management of the Marine Park.The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 is the primary planning instrument for the conservation and management of the Marine Park.
    作者:DAVID KEMP Minister for the Environment and Heritage 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 1998年《澳大利亚国家海洋政策》(英文)

    Australia’s Oceans Policy sets in place the framework for integrated and ecosystem-based planning and management for all of Australia’s marine jurisdictions. It includes a vision, a series of goals and principles and policy guidance for a national Oceans Policy. Building on existing effective sectoral and jurisdictional mechanisms, it promotes ecologicallysustainable development of the resources of our oceans and the encouragement of internationally competitive marine industries, while ensuring the protection of marine biological diversity.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 1998年《澳大利亚国家海洋政策》(英文)

    Australia’s Oceans Policy sets in place the framework for integrated and ecosystem-based planning and management for all of Australia’s marine jurisdictions. It includes a vision, a series of goals and principles and policy guidance for a national Oceans Policy. Building on existing effective sectoral and jurisdictional mechanisms, it promotes ecologicallysustainable development of the resources of our oceans and the encouragement of internationally competitive marine industries, while ensuring the protection of marine biological diversity.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2010年英国《克莱德湾海洋空间规划》(英文)

    The Plan provides direction and guidance for the sustainable development of activities, by both the public and private sector, within the Firth of Clyde. The policies in the Plan should not be interpreted in isolation. Instead, the Plan should be interpreted as a single document.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 2010年《美国国家海洋政策》(英文)

    The ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes provide jobs, food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical roles in our Nation's transportation, economy, and trade, as well as the global mobility of our Armed Forces and the maintenance of international peace and security. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and resulting environmental crisis is a stark reminder of how vulnerable our marine environments are, and how much communities and the Nation rely on healthy and resilient ocean and coastal ecosystems. America's stewardship of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes is intrinsically linked to environmental sustainability, human health and well-being, national prosperity, adaptation to climate and other environmental changes, social justice, international diplomacy, and national and homeland security.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 2010年《美国国家海洋政策》(英文)

    The ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes provide jobs, food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical roles in our Nation's transportation, economy, and trade, as well as the global mobility of our Armed Forces and the maintenance of international peace and security. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and resulting environmental crisis is a stark reminder of how vulnerable our marine environments are, and how much communities and the Nation rely on healthy and resilient ocean and coastal ecosystems. America's stewardship of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes is intrinsically linked to environmental sustainability, human health and well-being, national prosperity, adaptation to climate and other environmental changes, social justice, international diplomacy, and national and homeland security.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 2011年《英国海洋政策宣言》(英文)

    This Marine Policy Statement (MPS) is the framework for preparing Marine Plans and taking decisions affecting the marine environment. It will contribute to the achievement of sustainable development in the United Kingdom marine area. It has been prepared and adopted for the purposes of section 44 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2011年《英国海洋政策宣言》(英文)

    This Marine Policy Statement (MPS) is the framework for preparing Marine Plans and taking decisions affecting the marine environment. It will contribute to the achievement of sustainable development in the United Kingdom marine area. It has been prepared and adopted for the purposes of section 44 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第二卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第二卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第一卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:108 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第一卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:108 下载:0
  • 2006年《英国海洋空间规划—爱尔兰海试点规划》(英文)

    The Department for Environment,Food and Rural affairs(Defra) is seeking to research options for developing,implementing and managing marine spatial planning in UK coastal and offshore waters through a pilot study.
    作者:The Department for Environment,Food and Rural affairs(Defra) 阅读:102 下载:2
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 1979年澳大利亚《海岸和解书》(英文)

    At the Premiers Conference on 29 June 1979, the Commonwealth and the States completed an agreement of great importance for the settlement of contentious and complex offshore constitutional issues. The agreement marked the solution of a fundamental problem that has bedevilled Commonwealth-State relations, and represents a major achievement of the policy of co-operative federalism.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 1979年澳大利亚《海岸和解书》(英文)

    At the Premiers Conference on 29 June 1979, the Commonwealth and the States completed an agreement of great importance for the settlement of contentious and complex offshore constitutional issues. The agreement marked the solution of a fundamental problem that has bedevilled Commonwealth-State relations, and represents a major achievement of the policy of co-operative federalism.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 2009年德国《联邦北海和波罗的海专属经济区空间规划》(德文)

    Um die zunehmenden Nutzungskonflikte auf dem Meer insbesondere zwischen der sich entwickelnden flächenintensiven OffshoreWindenergienutzung und dem Meeresumweltschutz sowie den herkömmlichen Nutzungen wie der Schifffahrt und der Fischerei koordinierten Lösungen zuzuführen, bedarf die Entwicklung der deutschen ausschließlichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) einer im Sinne der Nachhaltigkeit integrativen Betrachtungsweise. Der als Rechtsverordnung aufgestellte Raumordnungsplan legt gemäß § 18a des Raumordnungsgesetzes, der mit dem Gesetz vom 24. Juni 2004 in das Raumordnungsgesetz eingefügt wurde, in der AWZ erstmalig Ziele und Grundsätze der Raumordnung hinsichtlich der wirtschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Nutzung,hinsichtlich der Gewährleistung der Sicherheit und Leichtigkeit der Seeschifffahrt sowie zum Schutz der Meeresumwelt fest.
    作者:德国政府 阅读:87 下载:0
  • 1972年《美国海岸带管理法》(英文)

    The term ‘‘coastal zone’’ means the coastal waters (including the lands therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes, islands, transitional and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends, in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 U.S.C. 749), the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 U.S.C. 1705), as applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent necessary to control shorelands, the uses of which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise. Excluded from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government, its officers or agents.
    作者:美国国会 阅读:123 下载:0
  • 1972年《美国海岸带管理法》(英文)

    The term ‘‘coastal zone’’ means the coastal waters (including the lands therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes, islands, transitional and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends, in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 U.S.C. 749), the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 U.S.C. 1705), as applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent necessary to control shorelands, the uses of which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise. Excluded from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government, its officers or agents.
    作者:美国国会 阅读:123 下载:0
  • 2017-2027年美国纽约州海洋行动计划(英文)

    The preparation of the content within this document was developed by Debra Abercrombie and Karen Chytalo from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and in cooperation and coordination with staff from the New York State Department of State. Funding was provided by the New York State Environmental Protection Fund’s Ocean & Great Lakes Program. Other New York state agencies, federal agencies, estuary programs, the New York Ocean and Great Lakes Coalition, the Shinnecock Indian Nation and ocean-based industry and user groups provided numerous revisions to draft versions of this document which were invaluable. The New York Marine Sciences Consortium provided vital recommendations concerning data and research needs, as well as detailed revisions to earlier drafts.
    作者:纽约州环境保护部 阅读:99 下载:0
  • 2017年美国东北海洋计划(英文)

    The National Ocean Council certified that the Plan is consistent with the National Ocean Policy on December 1, 2016. The Federal members of the NE RPB administer a wide range of statutes and programs that involve or affect the marine environment. These Federal departments and agencies carry out actions under Federal laws involving a wide range of regulatory responsibilities and non-regulatory missions and management activities throughout the Northeast ocean planning area. The specific manner and mechanism each Federal agency will use to implement the Plan will depend on that agency’s mission, authorities, and activities. Each Federal NE RPB member will use the Plan to inform and guide its planning activities and decision making activities.
    作者:NATIONAL OCEAN COUNCIL 阅读:110 下载:0
  • 荷兰《国家水利计划(2009-2015年)》第2部分(英文)

    In the last decade, the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management (Vierde Nota waterhuishouding), the Water Management in the 21st Century Advisory Committee (Commissie Waterbeheer 21e eeuw) and the National Administrative Agreement on Water (Nationaal Bestuursakkoord Water) represented an important impulse for water management. With this first National Water Plan, which is also a framework vision based on the Water Act (Waterwet) and the Spatial Planning Act (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) and which was drafted for the 2009-2015 planning period, we are entering a new phase. Because we want future generations to be able to enjoy the Netherlands as a safe and affluent land of water, we have to find answers now to developments in climate, demography and economy, and invest in sustainable water management. Effective flood defences, the prevention of flooding and waterlogging and drought wherever possible, and good water quality are basic preconditions for prosperity and well-being. These are achievements that the Netherlands owes, in large measure, to water, to its favourable location and to the excellent supply of freshwater. The Netherlands, an attractive country with an abundance of water and high levels of safety, contributes positively towards the quality of the living environment and the conservation of biodiversity. Water is wonderful and the Dutch love it. The aim is crystal clear: the Netherlands, a safe and liveable delta, now and in the future.
    作者:荷兰政府 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 荷兰《国家水利计划(2009-2015年)》第1部分(英文)

    In the last decade, the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management (Vierde Nota waterhuishouding), the Water Management in the 21st Century Advisory Committee (Commissie Waterbeheer 21e eeuw) and the National Administrative Agreement on Water (Nationaal Bestuursakkoord Water) represented an important impulse for water management. With this first National Water Plan, which is also a framework vision based on the Water Act (Waterwet) and the Spatial Planning Act (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) and which was drafted for the 2009-2015 planning period, we are entering a new phase. Because we want future generations to be able to enjoy the Netherlands as a safe and affluent land of water, we have to find answers now to developments in climate, demography and economy, and invest in sustainable water management. Effective flood defences, the prevention of flooding and waterlogging and drought wherever possible, and good water quality are basic preconditions for prosperity and well-being. These are achievements that the Netherlands owes, in large measure, to water, to its favourable location and to the excellent supply of freshwater. The Netherlands, an attractive country with an abundance of water and high levels of safety, contributes positively towards the quality of the living environment and the conservation of biodiversity. Water is wonderful and the Dutch love it. The aim is crystal clear: the Netherlands, a safe and liveable delta, now and in the future.
    作者:荷兰政府 阅读:83 下载:0
  • 2015年荷兰《北海综合管理计划》(英文)

    Fishing, sand extraction, wind farms, shipping and nature – the North Sea has many functions and is the object of a wide range of interests. For a proper management of all these functions guidance through spatial planning is required. That guiding policy is there now, in the form of a ‘North Sea paragraph’ in the Spatial Planning Policy Document. The North Sea paragraph takes relevant international agreements and obligations and national policy frameworks into account. The next step is to organize the implementation, enforcement and other management tasks in such a way that the North Sea manager is able to implement the policy effectively, efficiently and in accordance with existing policy frameworks. The Integrated Management Plan for the North Sea 2015 sets out how the North Sea will be managed in the coming ten years.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 2016年美国《中大西洋地区海洋行动计划》(英文)

    As the Federal, Tribal, and State Co-leads of this historic effort and on behalf of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Body (RPB), we are proud to present the Mid-Atlantic Regional Ocean Action Plan (Plan). This Plan is the result of over three years of collaborative effort by many RPB contributors, partners, and stakeholders and is the first of its kind in our region. It charts the course toward a more integrated approach to managing our shared ocean resources that is grounded in stakeholder engagement. The Plan guides and informs the decisions and practices of RPB member entities and fosters transparent ocean data and information sharing, improved coordination in decision making, and collaboration around specific actions that support ocean ecosystem health and sustainable ocean uses. The planning process will evolve over time, and we look forward to continuing to work with the people of the Mid-Atlantic in advancing this effort. Ultimately, we bear a shared responsibility for the treasured ocean resources upon which our region’s communities, economies, and ecosystems depend. Together, we can seize this opportunity.
    作者:美国海洋能源管理局 阅读:127 下载:0
  • 2006年荷兰《国家国土空间战略》(荷兰文)

    De Nota Ruimte is niet voor bange mensen. Dit kabinet nodigt u nadrukkelijk uit het heft in eigen handen te nemen bij het ruimtelijk vormgeven van de ontwikkeling van ons land. U krijgt ‘ruimte voor ontwikkeling’, zoals de titel van de Nota belooft. Kansen staan centraal, niet regels en restricties. Dat vereist ander beleid, maar ook een andere houding van alle betrokkenen. Bij minder nadruk op ordening en meer op ontwikkeling hoort, wat Amerikanen noemen, een ‘can do’-mentaliteit. Wij moeten elkaar stimuleren in inventiviteit en het grijpen van kansen.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 2006年荷兰《国家国土空间战略》(荷兰文)

    De Nota Ruimte is niet voor bange mensen. Dit kabinet nodigt u nadrukkelijk uit het heft in eigen handen te nemen bij het ruimtelijk vormgeven van de ontwikkeling van ons land. U krijgt ‘ruimte voor ontwikkeling’, zoals de titel van de Nota belooft. Kansen staan centraal, niet regels en restricties. Dat vereist ander beleid, maar ook een andere houding van alle betrokkenen. Bij minder nadruk op ordening en meer op ontwikkeling hoort, wat Amerikanen noemen, een ‘can do’-mentaliteit. Wij moeten elkaar stimuleren in inventiviteit en het grijpen van kansen.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》的更新(2014–2015)(英文)

    Norway is a maritime nation. The seas and coastline have shaped the development of Norwegian society and played an important part in forming the Norwegian sense of identity. Norway’s marine areas support a wide range of species and habitats and provide us with valuable resources, some familiar and others that we are still learning about. Many sectors of Norwegian industry and the Norwegian economy are closely linked to the seas, from maritime transport and shipbuilding to fisheries, aquaculture and the petroleum industry.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:75 下载:0
  • 挪威《北海和斯卡格勒克海洋环境的综合管理计划》(2012-2013)(英文)

    The Government’s goal is for Norway to be a pioneer in developing an integrated, ecosystembased management regime for marine areas. The Government will therefore continue to use the system of management plans for sea areas. An overall framework for petroleum activities will be established in the management plan for each sea area.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》的首次更新(2010-2011)(英文)

    该管理计划的目的是为可持续利用源自巴伦支海 - 罗弗敦地区的自然资源和商品提供框架,同时保持该地区生态系统的结构、功能、生产力和多样性。 因此,管理计划是促进价值创造和保持该地区高环境价值的工具。
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:83 下载:0
  • 2018年美国《华盛顿州太平洋海岸海洋空间规划》(英文)

    The marine waters along Washington’s Pacific Coast contain abundant natural resources and diverse habitats that support biological diversity and resilience of the marine ecosystem. These resources support multiple public uses that benefit the economies and cultures of nearby communities as well as the entire state. The citizens of Washington, as well as the Native American tribes that have rich histories and treaty-protected interests along the coast, strongly depend upon marine resources and will continue to do so into the future.
    作者:华盛顿州政府 阅读:120 下载:0
  • 2012年英国《北海区域海洋空间规划的预备行动》(英文)

    MASPNOSE is a preparatory action on Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the North Sea.MASPNOSE facilitated two concrete, cross-border MSP case studies on the North Sea: 1) the Belgian-Dutch collaboration on the Thornton Bank in the southern North Sea, and 2) the development of an international fisheries management plan for the Dogger Bank in the central North Sea. During the MASPNOSE project several lessons were learned on crossborder MSP that can be summarized in the following key messages:
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:0
  • 2009年《挪威海综合管理规划》(英语)

    The Norwegian Sea has a rich and varied natural environment that supports high biological production. There are substantial fisheries throughout the year, the most important of which are for Norwegian spring-spawning herring, blue whiting, Northeast Arctic saithe and Northeast Atlantic mackerel. There are also large petroleum deposits in the Norwegian Sea. In September 2009, 12 fields were on stream, and a further two – Morvin and Skarv – were under development but had not yet started production. There is a possibility that wind farms will be established in the Norwegian Sea. The near-shore areas are important in terms of transport. In addition, the Norwegian Sea is an important area for tourism based on enjoyment of the natural environment and for recreational fishing.
    作者:挪威政府 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 2009年《挪威海综合管理规划》(英语)

    The Norwegian Sea has a rich and varied natural environment that supports high biological production. There are substantial fisheries throughout the year, the most important of which are for Norwegian spring-spawning herring, blue whiting, Northeast Arctic saithe and Northeast Atlantic mackerel. There are also large petroleum deposits in the Norwegian Sea. In September 2009, 12 fields were on stream, and a further two – Morvin and Skarv – were under development but had not yet started production. There is a possibility that wind farms will be established in the Norwegian Sea. The near-shore areas are important in terms of transport. In addition, the Norwegian Sea is an important area for tourism based on enjoyment of the natural environment and for recreational fishing.
    作者:挪威政府 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 2006年挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》(英语)

    The ecosystems of the Barents Sea and the sea areas off the Lofoten Islands are of very high environmental value and are rich in living natural resources that are the basis for a considerable level of economic activity. There are major stocks of cod, herring and capelin in the area, and large cold-water coral reefs and seabird colonies of international importance. By international standards, the state of these ecosystems is generally good today, and the area covered by the management plan can be characterised as clean and rich in resources. The Government considers it very important to safeguard the basic structure and functioning of the ecosystems of this area in the long term, so that they continue to be clean, rich and productive.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 2006年挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》(英语)

    The ecosystems of the Barents Sea and the sea areas off the Lofoten Islands are of very high environmental value and are rich in living natural resources that are the basis for a considerable level of economic activity. There are major stocks of cod, herring and capelin in the area, and large cold-water coral reefs and seabird colonies of international importance. By international standards, the state of these ecosystems is generally good today, and the area covered by the management plan can be characterised as clean and rich in resources. The Government considers it very important to safeguard the basic structure and functioning of the ecosystems of this area in the long term, so that they continue to be clean, rich and productive.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 2010年《苏格兰海洋法》(英文)

    2010年,苏格兰发布了 一份与英联邦《海洋与海岸促进法》同等地位的《苏格兰海洋法案》,并建立了一个新的海洋综合管理局,以协调苏格兰的海洋管理,称为苏格兰海洋局,其职能包括海事管理、渔业 研究与服务、渔业保护等。
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:60 下载:0
  • 2009年《英国海岸带与海洋准入法》

    《海洋和海岸带准入法案》是英国为实现海洋可持续发展目标所搭建的法律体系的基础。作为新的管理政策的一部分,在该法案的架构下,英国成立了海事管理机构(Marine Management Organization),并对海洋与海岸带管理的诸多方面进行改革,如确立规划政策和海洋许可证制度、实现海洋保护区网络化、由更多地关注环境问题的近海渔业与保护局(Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authorities)取代海洋渔业委员会(Sea Fisheries Committees)、提高海岸带使用标准、更加方便地提供和使用海洋环境数据和信息以及加强海岸带和河口管理等。当然,该法案在执行层面还存在漏洞,对于海洋保护区也缺乏具体目标。尽管如此,其仍然是英国首个关注海洋与海岸带综合管理的全面法律,是重要的里程碑。
    作者:英国国会 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 2009年美国《有效海岸带和海洋空间规划临时框架》(英语)

    Coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) is one of the nine priority objectives proposed in the Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force (Task Force) of September 10, 2009 (Interim Report). This framework for CMSP in the United States provides a definition of CMSP, identifies the reasons for engaging in CMSP, and describes its geographic scope. It articulates national CMSP goals and guiding principles that would be adhered to in CMSP efforts and the eventual development and implementation of coastal and marine spatial plans (CMS Plans). In addition, this framework describes how CMSP and CMS Plans would be regional in scope and developed cooperatively among Federal, State, tribal, local authorities, and regional governance structures, with substantial stakeholder and public input.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 阅读:130 下载:0
  • 2009年美国《有效海岸带和海洋空间规划临时框架》(英语)

    Coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) is one of the nine priority objectives proposed in the Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force (Task Force) of September 10, 2009 (Interim Report). This framework for CMSP in the United States provides a definition of CMSP, identifies the reasons for engaging in CMSP, and describes its geographic scope. It articulates national CMSP goals and guiding principles that would be adhered to in CMSP efforts and the eventual development and implementation of coastal and marine spatial plans (CMS Plans). In addition, this framework describes how CMSP and CMS Plans would be regional in scope and developed cooperatively among Federal, State, tribal, local authorities, and regional governance structures, with substantial stakeholder and public input.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 阅读:130 下载:0
  • 2007年欧盟《海洋综合政策蓝皮书》(英文)

    The seas are Europe's lifeblood. Europe's maritime spaces and its coasts are central to its wellbeing and prosperity – they are Europe's trade routes, climate regulator, sources of food, energy and resources, and a favoured site for its citizens' residence and recreation. Our interactions with the sea are more intense, more varied, and create more value for Europe than ever before. Yet the strain is showing. We are at a crossroads in our relationship with the oceans. On the one hand technology and know-how allow us to extract ever more value from the sea, and more and more people flow to Europe's coasts to benefit from that value. On the other hand, the cumulated effect of all this activity is leading to conflicts of use and to the deterioration of the marine environment that everything else depends on.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:115 下载:0
  • 2006年《欧洲未来海洋政策绿皮书》(英文)

    Any European will remember learning about the great voyages of discovery which opened the eyes of our forebears to the vastness of our planet, to the diversity of its cultures and the richness of its resources. Most of these voyages were made by sea. Most of them required for their success openness to new ideas, meticulous planning, courage and determination. As time went by, they not only opened up previously uncharted areas of the globe, they also generated new technologies such as the chronometer to allow for the exact calculation of longitude and the steam turbine to bring independence from the tyranny of prevailing winds.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:100 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第二卷》(英文)

    Volume 2 of the 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan focuses on the data and scientific aspects of the plan and its implementation. It includes these two separate documents: • Baseline Assessment Five-Year Update: Report on Changes and Trends since 2009 - The Oceans Act mandated a Baseline Assessment as part of the ocean plan and required a review and update of this Baseline Assessment at least every five years. The 2009 Baseline Assessment constituted an extensive cataloguing of the current state of knowledge regarding human uses, natural resources, and other ecosystem components of Massachusetts ocean waters. The 2015 update to the Baseline Assessment is presented here in Volume 2. It reports on the current condition and status, as well as trends since 2009, in Massachusetts marine waters. • Science Framework - This document provides the updated blueprint for ocean management-related science and data priorities and strategies that will support continued evolution of the ocean plan.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第二卷》(英文)

    Volume 2 of the 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan focuses on the data and scientific aspects of the plan and its implementation. It includes these two separate documents: • Baseline Assessment Five-Year Update: Report on Changes and Trends since 2009 - The Oceans Act mandated a Baseline Assessment as part of the ocean plan and required a review and update of this Baseline Assessment at least every five years. The 2009 Baseline Assessment constituted an extensive cataloguing of the current state of knowledge regarding human uses, natural resources, and other ecosystem components of Massachusetts ocean waters. The 2015 update to the Baseline Assessment is presented here in Volume 2. It reports on the current condition and status, as well as trends since 2009, in Massachusetts marine waters. • Science Framework - This document provides the updated blueprint for ocean management-related science and data priorities and strategies that will support continued evolution of the ocean plan.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第一卷》(英文)

    In 2009, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) issued the Commonwealth’s first‐ever Ocean Management Plan, putting Massachusetts at the forefront of the nation on comprehensive ocean planning and management. This significant milestone, launched with the signing of the Oceans Act in May 2008, was the culmination of an extensive planning process that reflected the dedication of the Bay State to the responsible stewardship of our vast coastal and ocean resources and the sustainable uses they support. EEA, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, worked to collect and analyze the best available science and data on ocean resources and uses and to identify the most efficient and effective management options available. The resulting ocean plan created a pragmatic management structure that enables the Commonwealth to proactively balance current and future uses of ocean waters while protecting critical ocean habitats and promoting sustainable economic development.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第一卷》(英文)

    In 2009, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) issued the Commonwealth’s first‐ever Ocean Management Plan, putting Massachusetts at the forefront of the nation on comprehensive ocean planning and management. This significant milestone, launched with the signing of the Oceans Act in May 2008, was the culmination of an extensive planning process that reflected the dedication of the Bay State to the responsible stewardship of our vast coastal and ocean resources and the sustainable uses they support. EEA, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, worked to collect and analyze the best available science and data on ocean resources and uses and to identify the most efficient and effective management options available. The resulting ocean plan created a pragmatic management structure that enables the Commonwealth to proactively balance current and future uses of ocean waters while protecting critical ocean habitats and promoting sustainable economic development.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 2015年《苏格兰国家海洋计划》(英文)

    Our seas are six times the landmass of Scotland, over 460,000 square kilometres of some of the most productive and diverse resource in the world. Whilst we have been planning for land use for decades, marine planning is a relatively new concept, introduced in Scotland through the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2002年欧盟《海岸带综合管理建议书》(英文)

    In formulating national strategies andmeasures basedon these strategies, Member States shouldfollow the principles of integratedcoastal zone management to ensure goodcoastal zone management, taking into account the good practices identified,inter alia, in the Commission’s demonstration programme on integratedcoastal zone management. In particular, coastal zone management shouldbe basedon:
    作者:Official Journal of the European Communities 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2002年欧盟《海岸带综合管理建议书》(英文)

    In formulating national strategies andmeasures basedon these strategies, Member States shouldfollow the principles of integratedcoastal zone management to ensure goodcoastal zone management, taking into account the good practices identified,inter alia, in the Commission’s demonstration programme on integratedcoastal zone management. In particular, coastal zone management shouldbe basedon:
    作者:Official Journal of the European Communities 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2016年苏格兰彭特兰湾和奥克尼郡水域海洋空间计划(英文)

    This pilot Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan is the result of a successful collaboration between Marine Scotland, Orkney Islands Council and the Highland Council. This working group undertook, in advance of statutory regional marine plans, a pilot process for setting up a planning policy framework.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 2016年苏格兰彭特兰湾和奥克尼郡水域海洋空间计划(英文)

    This pilot Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan is the result of a successful collaboration between Marine Scotland, Orkney Islands Council and the Highland Council. This working group undertook, in advance of statutory regional marine plans, a pilot process for setting up a planning policy framework.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 美国《俄勒冈州领海计划(1994年)》(英文)

    Ocean planning in Oregon has evolved from strong public interests in coastal use and protection that began long before statehood This historic concern for the coast has involved several Governors, the Oregon Legislature, and, as always, a vocal and active public.
    作者:俄勒冈州政府 阅读:131 下载:0
  • 美国《俄勒冈州领海计划(1994年)》(英文)

    Ocean planning in Oregon has evolved from strong public interests in coastal use and protection that began long before statehood This historic concern for the coast has involved several Governors, the Oregon Legislature, and, as always, a vocal and active public.
    作者:俄勒冈州政府 阅读:131 下载:0
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(中英对照)

    本文对海洋规划的潜在影响进行了大量定性讨论。本文讨论了在没有规划的情况下当前和可预期未来的海洋开发,并概述了海洋规划如何改变未来的发展。除了对某些行政费用的估算之外,本文基本上是定性讨论。虽然本文不是技术性的分析文件,但它为将来的分析提供了有用信息。本文仅评估与东部海洋规划区域有关的影响,并未考虑与整个海洋规划系统有关的影响。东部海洋规划区域重点意味着这不能用作其他海洋规划区域或整个海洋规划系统的成本和效益假设的基础。
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:132 下载:8
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(中英对照)

    本文对海洋规划的潜在影响进行了大量定性讨论。本文讨论了在没有规划的情况下当前和可预期未来的海洋开发,并概述了海洋规划如何改变未来的发展。除了对某些行政费用的估算之外,本文基本上是定性讨论。虽然本文不是技术性的分析文件,但它为将来的分析提供了有用信息。本文仅评估与东部海洋规划区域有关的影响,并未考虑与整个海洋规划系统有关的影响。东部海洋规划区域重点意味着这不能用作其他海洋规划区域或整个海洋规划系统的成本和效益假设的基础。
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:132 下载:8
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(英文)

    This document provides a largely qualitative discussion of potential impacts of the marine plans. It discusses current and expected future marine development in the absence of plans and provides an overview of how marine plans might alter future development. It is a largely qualitative discussion with the exception of estimates for some administrative costs. While not a technical, analytical document, it provides useful information for future analysis. This document assesses impacts that solely relate to the East Marine Plan areas and does not consider impacts that relate to the marine planning system as a whole. Its East Marine Plan area focus means it cannot be used as a basis for assumptions about costs and benefits in other marine plan areas, or about the marine planning system as a whole.
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:116 下载:1
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(英文)

    This document provides a largely qualitative discussion of potential impacts of the marine plans. It discusses current and expected future marine development in the absence of plans and provides an overview of how marine plans might alter future development. It is a largely qualitative discussion with the exception of estimates for some administrative costs. While not a technical, analytical document, it provides useful information for future analysis. This document assesses impacts that solely relate to the East Marine Plan areas and does not consider impacts that relate to the marine planning system as a whole. Its East Marine Plan area focus means it cannot be used as a basis for assumptions about costs and benefits in other marine plan areas, or about the marine planning system as a whole.
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:116 下载:1
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划之执行纲要(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:8
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划之执行纲要(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:8
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:127 下载:4
  • 2014年北海比利时区域海洋空间规划(中英对照)

    早在2003年,北海部长Johan Vande Lanotte就北海比利时区域(BPNS)的空间规划提出倡议。该倡议在“总体规划”中规定了某些活动和用途。其中,该总体规划建立了可再生能源领域。在随后的几年中,海洋空间规划成为欧洲议程上的一个重要议题。2008年,欧盟委员会发布了“海洋空间规划路线图:在欧盟实现共同原则”的通讯。这对成员国的海洋空间规划起到了重要的推动作用。联合国教科文组织国际奥委会还通过2009年出版的“海洋空间规划:逐步实现基于生态系统的管理方法”推广海洋空间规划。
    作者:比利时政府 阅读:134 下载:4
  • 中国对黄岩岛主张的法律依据(英文)

    The Huangyan Island' (15'07'N, 117°51>E) lies in the southeast Zhongsha Islands,Sansha City, Hai'nan Province, China. It is about 160nm from Macclesfield Bank and approximately 130 nm from Luzon Island of the Philippines.2 As the only island above sea level during high tide in the Zhongsha Islands, the Island forms a triangleshaped chain of reefs, rocks and islets, some of which are 0.5m to 3m above water,such as South Rock (1.8m) and North Rock (1.5m),3 encompassing a 15m deep lagoon with a total area of 130km2. China's sovereign jurisdiction over the island had never been challenged until April 30, 1997, when the Filipino navy drove an international amateur radio group away from the island and began to claim sovereignty over the Huangyan Island.4 Since then, the Filipino navy has repeatedly detained and even sunk Chinese fishing boats, arrested Chinese fishermen, and carried out socalled law enforcement activities on the Island. Meanwhile, the Philippine baseline law in 20095 and initiation of the arbitral proceedings against China in 2013 have consistently escalated tension with China.
    作者:Wells 阅读:121 下载:0
  • 闭海半闭海合作理论与实践:一些对COC磋商的建议(中英对照)

    在闭海或半闭海合作领域,国际上已有大量成功实践。相关海域的沿岸国按照《公约》规定开展了海洋生物资源、海洋环境保护、海洋科学研究等方面的合作,对于中国与南海周边国家开展合作具有重要的借鉴意义。
    作者:Wells 阅读:128 下载:1
  • 在第三方国家的专属经济区内进行非法、未报告和未管制捕捞活动的情况下,船旗国的义务是什么?(中英对照)

    专属经济区内的国际渔业法律制度由LOSC管辖,其关于专属经济区的规定已被视为结合到习惯国际法中。LOSC第56(1)条规定,在专属经济区内,沿海国拥有“主权权利以探索和开发、保护和管理海底附近水域、海底以及底土的生物或非生物自然资源......”在行使这些主权权利时,沿海国可允许其他国家的船舶在其专属经济区捕鱼。如果沿海国无法捕捞根据LOSC第61(1)条规定为其专属经济区设定的允许捕捞量的全部,则必须允许其他国家的渔船捕捞其可能的捕捞盈余部分。外国船舶可以根据直接从沿海国获得的许可证在沿海国专属经济区内捕捞,或者更常见的是根据沿海国与其船旗国之间允许外国船舶进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞的协议(如此协议在下文称为准入协议)。无论外国船舶根据何种方式进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞,在捕捞时其受到沿海国立法管辖权的约束。这是因为上述和第62(4)条规定的沿海国主权权利,第62(4)条列出了一份沿海国管理其专属经济区内的外国捕捞可能采用的法律和法规的非详尽清单。此类法律法规必须与LOSC“一致”,并且必须就其存在 “适当通知”。
    作者:Wells 阅读:97 下载:0
  • 在第三方国家的专属经济区内进行非法、未报告和未管制捕捞活动的情况下,船旗国的义务是什么?(中英对照)

    专属经济区内的国际渔业法律制度由LOSC管辖,其关于专属经济区的规定已被视为结合到习惯国际法中。LOSC第56(1)条规定,在专属经济区内,沿海国拥有“主权权利以探索和开发、保护和管理海底附近水域、海底以及底土的生物或非生物自然资源......”在行使这些主权权利时,沿海国可允许其他国家的船舶在其专属经济区捕鱼。如果沿海国无法捕捞根据LOSC第61(1)条规定为其专属经济区设定的允许捕捞量的全部,则必须允许其他国家的渔船捕捞其可能的捕捞盈余部分。外国船舶可以根据直接从沿海国获得的许可证在沿海国专属经济区内捕捞,或者更常见的是根据沿海国与其船旗国之间允许外国船舶进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞的协议(如此协议在下文称为准入协议)。无论外国船舶根据何种方式进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞,在捕捞时其受到沿海国立法管辖权的约束。这是因为上述和第62(4)条规定的沿海国主权权利,第62(4)条列出了一份沿海国管理其专属经济区内的外国捕捞可能采用的法律和法规的非详尽清单。此类法律法规必须与LOSC“一致”,并且必须就其存在 “适当通知”。
    作者:Wells 阅读:97 下载:0
  • OSPAR公约对管理国家管辖范围以外的保护区之影响(中文)

    各种国际条约机构和非政府组织不断敦促各国在国家管辖范围以外的地区(ABNJ)建立海洋保护区网络(MPA)。尽管仍未实现这一目标,但《保护东北大西洋海洋环境公约》(OSPAR公约)可以作为一个示范,说明东北大西洋在该区域层面所做的努力。但是,这些有效保护海洋环境的努力受到《联合国海洋法公约》(UNCLOS)的限制。同样, OSPAR公约本身对此类保护区的保护范围也有限制。OSPAR公约没有充分涵盖可能干扰保护区的所有人类对海洋的利用活动,并且缺少机会实施国际化的执法措施。因此,在OSPAR模式下采取有效保护措施的责任最终仍由各个缔约方承担,即由缔约方承诺制定更严格的标准并就其执行达成一致。尽管如此,诸如报告职责之类的“软”义务仍适合用于收集MPA保护和利用所需要的有关数据。此外,与区域渔业管理机构的合作可以更好地保护这些地区的生物资源。最后,OSPAR海洋保护区可引起人们对特别脆弱的生态系统的关注,并促进诸如在粮农组织(FAO)主持下制定的保护标准和措施。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
  • OSPAR公约对管理国家管辖范围以外的保护区之影响(英文)

    各种国际条约机构和非政府组织不断敦促各国在国家管辖范围以外的地区(ABNJ)建立海洋保护区网络(MPA)。尽管仍未实现这一目标,但《保护东北大西洋海洋环境公约》(OSPAR公约)可以作为一个示范,说明东北大西洋在该区域层面所做的努力。但是,这些有效保护海洋环境的努力受到《联合国海洋法公约》(UNCLOS)的限制。同样, OSPAR公约本身对此类保护区的保护范围也有限制。OSPAR公约没有充分涵盖可能干扰保护区的所有人类对海洋的利用活动,并且缺少机会实施国际化的执法措施。因此,在OSPAR模式下采取有效保护措施的责任最终仍由各个缔约方承担,即由缔约方承诺制定更严格的标准并就其执行达成一致。尽管如此,诸如报告职责之类的“软”义务仍适合用于收集MPA保护和利用所需要的有关数据。此外,与区域渔业管理机构的合作可以更好地保护这些地区的生物资源。最后,OSPAR海洋保护区可引起人们对特别脆弱的生态系统的关注,并促进诸如在粮农组织(FAO)主持下制定的保护标准和措施。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:105 下载:0
  • 2014年北海比利时区域海洋空间规划(英文)

    Already in 2003, Minister of the North Sea Johan Vande Lanotte took an initiative for spatial planning of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS). This initiative laid down certain activities and uses in a ‘Masterplan’2. Among others, this Masterplan established the area for renewable energy. In the years that followed, maritime spatial planning became an important item on the European agenda. In 2008, the European Commission issued the Communication, “Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU”3. This constituted a significant stimulus for maritime spatial planning in the Member States.
    作者:比利时政府 阅读:125 下载:4
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Wells 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Wells 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(英文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:RECIEL 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(英文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:RECIEL 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 亚太经合组织海洋可持续发展报告2:亚太经合组织落实可持续发展目标14及相关目标(英文)

    The APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report 2 is the result of a collaborative effort of APEC economies together with a number of institutions and individuals with the strong supports from APEC Secretariat. This report would not have been possible without the financial support of the Ministry of Natural Resources, P.R.China who funded the development of the report, including 2017 Workshop on APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report 2.
    作者:亚太经合组织 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 亚太经合组织海洋可持续发展报告2之第4章(中文)

    亚太经合组织做出具体承诺:通过支持“2030年议程”实现可持续发展。亚太经合组织自1989年成立以来,通过引导经济增长、促进贸易和投资,以及加强在一系列环境和发展问题上的跨文化合作,已经为推动区域可持续发展做出了巨大贡献。亚太经合组织也是与海洋有关的讨论和合作的重要平台178。与食品安全、食品营养和食品贸易有关的海洋合作也是APEC工作的重要组成部分。通过与海洋与渔业工作组(OFWG)和其他子论坛的合作,APEC在促进海洋和海洋资源的可持续性,以及促进亚太地区的可持续和包容性增长方面,做出了巨大努力。基于对“可持续增长”的优先考虑,亚太经合组织2019年将“保护我们的海洋和海洋生态系统”作为一个关键议题,这为APEC在该地区不断推进与海洋相关的可持续发展提供了新的机遇和动力。
    作者:亚太经合组织 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 2021年全球渔业指数:评估世界海洋渔业的可持续性(英文)

    在一个健康的星球上,却没有一个健康的海洋,海洋的健康状况正在明显下降。我们时代最大的任务之一就是扭转这种下降的趋势,恢复海洋的健康。我相信,我们能够做到,但我们不能再拖延推诿了。我们的子孙后代未来的安全要求我们现在就采取行动……
    作者:明德鲁基金会 阅读:230 下载:0
  • 《海洋法律与政策》 2021年第2期 总第2期(季刊)

    《海洋法律与政策》(Marine Law and Policy),ISSN 2709-3948, ISSN 2710-1738 (online), 是海南大学国际海洋法律与争端解决研究中心(HNU-CISLDS)结合大中华地区其他七家兄弟院校 在香港合作创办的学术季刊。本刊的目的在于支持 21 世纪海上丝绸之路的宏大愿景,服务中国 (海南)自由贸易港的具体建设工作。这一平台希望能发挥纠合同志,引入智慧,交流经验与 创新构想的功能,以为公私领域内的读者们服务。本期《海洋法律与政策》刊发的论文包括了自贸港建设中的涉海问题、国际海事组织、海洋 环境保护以及渔民权益保障等公私海洋法律问题。
    作者:《海洋法律与政策》编辑部 阅读:124 下载:0
  • 《海洋法律与政策》 2021年第1期 总第1期(季刊)

    本期《海洋法律与政策》刊发的论文包括了海洋政策与公私海洋法律的几个重大新问题热点。特别是来自香港与台湾的学者专家,分别针对港台地区港口管理,进行了田野调查,发表了他们的研究报告,对于建设海南自由港以及推进21世纪海上丝绸之路的建设,有着特殊重要的意义。
    作者:《海洋法律与政策》编辑部 阅读:131 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Charlotte Salpin and Valentina Germani 阅读:144 下载:0
  • 在海洋保护区应用IUCN全球保护标准(英文)

    Applying IUCN’s Global Conservation Standards to MPAs is a synthesis of the existing IUCN Green List Standard for Protected and Conserved Areasi, together with current relevant policies taken from approved IUCN Resolutions and Guidance documentsii. Designed to support Governments, Agencies, NGOs, Donors, Community-Based Organisations, MPA managers and many others, this document brings all this information together for the first timeinto this single format to inform the fair and effective design and management of MPAs.
    作者:IUCN WCPA 阅读:185 下载:0
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(中文)

    研究和监测计划(RMP)对海洋保护区(MPAs)的开发和实施至关重要。依据CM91-04相关规定,委员会应采纳研究和监测计划,以便为定期审查程序提供信息,该过程将用于评估海洋保护区的具体目标是否仍然适合或已经达到。
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:173 下载:1
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(英文)

    This paper is presented for consideration by CCAMLR and may contain unpublished data, analyses, and/or conclusions subject to change. Data in this paper shall not be cited or used for purposes other than the work of the CAMLR Commission, Scientific Committee or their subsidiary bodies without the permission of the originators and/or owners of the data.
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:163 下载:0
  • 在海洋保护区应用IUCN全球保护标准(英文)

    Applying IUCN’s Global Conservation Standards to MPAs is a synthesis of the existing IUCN Green List Standard for Protected and Conserved Areasi, together with current relevant policies taken from approved IUCN Resolutions and Guidance documentsii. Designed to support Governments, Agencies, NGOs, Donors, Community-Based Organisations, MPA managers and many others, this document brings all this information together for the first timeinto this single format to inform the fair and effective design and management of MPAs.
    作者:IUCN WCPA 阅读:185 下载:0
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(中文)

    研究和监测计划(RMP)对海洋保护区(MPAs)的开发和实施至关重要。依据CM91-04相关规定,委员会应采纳研究和监测计划,以便为定期审查程序提供信息,该过程将用于评估海洋保护区的具体目标是否仍然适合或已经达到。
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:173 下载:1
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(英文)

    This paper is presented for consideration by CCAMLR and may contain unpublished data, analyses, and/or conclusions subject to change. Data in this paper shall not be cited or used for purposes other than the work of the CAMLR Commission, Scientific Committee or their subsidiary bodies without the permission of the originators and/or owners of the data.
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:163 下载:0
  • 2021年美国海军战略指南(英文)

    10月7日,美国海军发布新战略指南,直接将中国称作是其最紧要的挑战。新加坡《联合早报》称,这是美国首次承认中国和美国的海军军力旗鼓相当。 在发布的新战略指南中,美国海军部长卡洛斯·德尔·托罗(Carlos Del Toro)将中国、军队文化、气候变化与新冠列为美国海军面对的四大挑战。其中,指南称,中国带来的长期挑战最重要。
    作者:美国海军部长 阅读:413 下载:0
  • 南极罗斯海地区海洋保护区研究和监测计划(中文)

    罗斯海是南太平洋深入南极洲的大海湾,也是人类航海所能到达的地球最南海域之一,有超过1万多个海洋物种在这里栖息,包括企鹅、鲸类、海鸟、巨型鱿鱼和南极犬牙鱼等海洋物种。在科学研究上,罗斯海被认为是地球上最后一块完整的海洋生态系统区域,是研究南极海洋生物以及全球气候变化的理想之地。
    作者:A. Dunn, M. Vacchi and G. Watters (Co-conveners) 阅读:168 下载:0
  • 南极罗斯海地区海洋保护区研究和监测计划(英文)

    罗斯海是南太平洋深入南极洲的大海湾,也是人类航海所能到达的地球最南海域之一,有超过1万多个海洋物种在这里栖息,包括企鹅、鲸类、海鸟、巨型鱿鱼和南极犬牙鱼等海洋物种。在科学研究上,罗斯海被认为是地球上最后一块完整的海洋生态系统区域,是研究南极海洋生物以及全球气候变化的理想之地。
    作者:A. Dunn, M. Vacchi and G. Watters (Co-conveners) 阅读:168 下载:0
  • 《联合国海洋法公约》在北极的适用与中国的北极政策(英文)

    随着气候变化和经济全球化,北极治理正在获得全球意义。与南极相比,北极的一个突出特点是海洋位于中心,周围是陆地,包括岛屿和群岛。对于所有北极事务,没有单一的全面条约。目前,北极事务由《联合国宪章》、《联合国海洋法公约》、《斯匹次卑尔根条约》和其他条约以及一般国际法管辖。《海洋法公约》为处理北极海洋事务提供了一个立法框架。
    作者:ChenxiMI 阅读:215 下载:0
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(俄文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:201 下载:0
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(中文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:342 下载:1
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(中文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:342 下载:1
  • CIIL南海研究(五):面对国际法律战,如何积极斗争、勇争胜利?

    南海仲裁案实体裁决已出,各方朋友都在询问国际法促进中心有无评论文章,请大家不要着急,给专家们留点看完全部裁决的时间先。 今天推送的文章来自于国际法促进中心发起组织的“南海法律研究组”。研究组由十位中国国际法年轻学者和律师自愿报名组成,针对南海仲裁案管辖权阶段程序、管辖权裁决以及实体阶段程序等5个课题,分工协作,无偿地进行了研究,为南海仲裁案提供客观理性的法律分析,发出中国年轻学者和律师的声音。 此篇是南海法律研究系列报告第五篇,聚焦中方的“不出庭”策略考量以及提出未来策略选项。欢迎各位前辈、同仁和朋友批评指正,一起为南海问题的和平解决和国际法的健康发展献计献策。
    作者:高杨 何佳伟 阅读:2363 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(四):中菲南海仲裁庭管辖权扩张及争端和平解决效果分析

    近年来,国际法庭或者仲裁庭在海洋争端领域的管辖权扩张日趋明显,这集中体现在对涉及领土争端的海洋混合争端拥有管辖权上。包括本次中菲南海仲裁案中Wolfrum仲裁员在内的一些学者认为,在为解决海洋争端之必要情势下,《联合国海洋法公约》(简称“《公约》”)强制争端解决程序对领土争端可以变相、甚至直接地具有管辖权。本文通过分析该种观点的学理基础和司法实践,进行了如下反驳:
    作者:宋可 何佳伟 阅读:2610 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(三):中菲南海仲裁案实体问题仲裁阶段专家背景及证据采信

    继2015年10月29日设于荷兰海牙和平宫的国际常设仲裁院特别仲裁庭就南海仲裁案做出管辖权裁决后,仲裁庭按照《程序规则》第 24 条的规定,在听取了当事方的意见之后,确定于2015年11月24日至30日再次开庭,对该案的实体问题及剩余管辖权和可受理性问题进行审理,并指定了一名技术专家Grant W. Boyes先生,在必要时协助仲裁庭。庭审之前,仲裁庭允许了菲律宾提交地理学家CliveScofield教授和海洋生物学家Kent Carpenter教授两位独立专家证人的意见。
    作者:秦泉 阅读:2108 下载:1
  • CIIL南海研究(二):中菲南海仲裁案管辖权裁决对于争端性质的论证分析

    虽然中方“不参与、不接受”此次中菲南海仲裁的立场是坚定的,但是在一方缺席的情况下,南海仲裁庭依然需要满足《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)对其裁决公正性的要求。根据《公约》附件七第9条的规定,在一方缺席的情况下,仲裁庭依然必须满足自己对争端具有管辖权,且必须满足诉求具有事实和法律的坚实依据。为此,本文将中方立场和仲裁庭管辖权裁决的相应部分一一列出,并进行初步探讨,以此检验仲裁庭是否满足了《公约》附件七第9条的具体要求。其中,中方立场主要的依据是2014年12月7日中国发布的《中华人民共和国政府关于菲律宾共和国所提南海仲裁案管辖权问题的立场文件》。
    作者:王丹维 何佳伟 阅读:2524 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(一):国际海洋法法庭日本籍前庭长柳井俊二法官的回避可能和仲裁庭公正性瑕疵

    公正性(Impartiality)是确保公正审判最重要的原则性要求,是各国际法院与法庭权威性立足的根本,也是其判决、裁决得以被认可的保障。本文认为,结合本次中菲南海仲裁庭的组建背景来看,仲裁庭的公正性存在瑕疵可能。对于中菲南海仲裁庭的公正性,最主要的瑕疵体现在其实际最主要组建人——时任国际海洋法法庭庭长的柳井俊二对本案的公正性存在瑕疵,并理应回避组建工作。
    作者:张珂君 阅读:2387 下载:2
  • 序言:南海仲裁案管辖权和程序问题系列研究报告

    南海仲裁案实体裁决宣布在即,国际社会和国内社会都对之报以极大关注。为此,国际法促进中心发起组织了“南海法律研究组”,针对南海仲裁案管辖权阶段程序、管辖权裁决以及实体阶段程序中的5个课题进行了研究。研究组由十位中国国际法年轻学者和律师自愿报名组成,研究由我们合作、无偿地完成。本次研究的目的在于针对南海仲裁,提供客观理性的法律分析,发出中国年轻学者和律师的独立声音。本篇为研究组报告的综述,主要介绍南海仲裁案的仲裁程序和仲裁事项,并简要介绍研究组的5个研究课题成果。
    作者:何佳伟 阅读:2012 下载:0
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  • Wells涉外文献检索:最新国际海洋动态与文献 2022年1月第1期(1.1-1.15)

    本期重点:美国国务院发布《海洋中的界限》系列报告;法国海军海事信息合作与宣传中心(MICA Center)发布《2021年全球海上安全报告》;国际可再生能源机构(IRENA) 《2050年实现航运业脱碳的途径》报告;重点涉海论文《海洋温度在2021年创下历史新高》。
    作者:Wells 阅读:172 下载:0
  • 从“蓝色增长”向“可持续的蓝色经济”转型——欧盟海洋经济可持续发展方案(英文)

    如果将全球蓝色经济比作一国国民经济的话 ,它将成为世界上的第七大经济体,而海 洋作为一个经济实体也将成为七国集团的一员。
    作者:欧盟委员会 阅读:54 下载:1
  • 美国国会研究服务部(CRS)报告《美中南海、东海战略竞争》(英文)

    在过去的几年里,南海已经成为美中战略竞争的舞台。中国在南海的行动,包括在其占领的南沙群岛上进行大规模的岛屿建设和基地建设活动,以及中国海上力量为支持其主权声明而针对菲律宾和越南等邻国的主权主张所采取的一系列行动,加剧了美国观察家的担忧。
    作者:美国国会研究服务部 阅读:77 下载:0
  • 欧盟成员国海洋骨料提取法规(英文)

    本文简要回顾了与欧盟八个成员国的海洋骨料 (MA) 运营授权相关的法规和程序。
    作者:Journal o f Coastal Research 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 欧洲联盟的综合海洋政策——巩固沿海和海洋信息以支持海洋空间规划(英文)

    Launch of the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union in 2007 served as important factor that stimulates consolidation of coastal and marine information to support policy implementation. Policy’s action plan provides approaches for maritime governance, research and planning relevant to information. In particular, roadmap for maritime spatial planning stimulates development of coastal and marine GIS. Article reviews the current general status of coastal and marine systems and puts them in the context of the policy actions. Main focus is on formation of geospatial information platform for integrated assessment and ecosystem-based management of coastal and marine areas. Recent developments in data, indicator and information systems are summarized in European perspective: better characterization of maritime space and marine ecosystems, development of GMES Marine Core service and related in situ data collection;data harmonisation, interoperability and access, promoted by Shared Environmental Information System principles.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:82 下载:0
  • 欧盟海洋战略框架指令(MSFD)和海洋空间规划(MSP):哪个对英国的海洋政策更具主导性和实用性?(英文)

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the contribution to UK marine governance of two recent EU initiatives: the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP). MSFD imposed a duty on Member States to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in four regional seas,while MSP required Member States to replace their fragmented, sector-based system of maritime decision making with an integrated approach. This paper explains MSFD and MSP, examines their relationship, and compares their practicability, concluding that MSP is both the more dominant and the more practicable instrument, reflecting the UK's preference for sustainable development over conservationism in marine policy. A recent proposal by the European Commission to make MSP and integrated coastal management a Directive reinforces the UK position.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 2018年苏格兰国家海洋计划执行情况三年报告(英文)

    Scotland’s first statutory National Marine Plan (the Plan) was adopted and published in March 2015. The policies and objectives of the Plan set out how Scottish Ministers intend marine resources to be used and managed out to 200 nautical miles. It supports development and activity in Scotland’s seas while incorporating environmental protection into marine decision-making to achieve sustainable management. The Plan applies to all decisions taken by public authorities which affect this marine area.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:94 下载:0
  • 海洋保护报告系列:综合海岸带管理的国际审查(英文)

    The Oceans Conservation Report Series is a newly established series published by Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), as part of the 1998 International Year of the Oceans' celebrations. This report series is intended to serve a broad audience interested in coastal and oceans issues affecting Canada and the global coastal community. The subject matter reflects DFO's evolving interests and policies, pursuant to the Oceans Act (1996), in three key areas: Integrated Coastal Zone Management; Marine Protected Areas; and Marine Environmental Quality.
    作者:加拿大渔业和海洋部 阅读:107 下载:0
  • 1998年《澳大利亚国家海洋政策》(英文)

    Australia’s Oceans Policy sets in place the framework for integrated and ecosystem-based planning and management for all of Australia’s marine jurisdictions. It includes a vision, a series of goals and principles and policy guidance for a national Oceans Policy. Building on existing effective sectoral and jurisdictional mechanisms, it promotes ecologicallysustainable development of the resources of our oceans and the encouragement of internationally competitive marine industries, while ensuring the protection of marine biological diversity.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2010年《美国国家海洋政策》(英文)

    The ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes provide jobs, food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical roles in our Nation's transportation, economy, and trade, as well as the global mobility of our Armed Forces and the maintenance of international peace and security. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and resulting environmental crisis is a stark reminder of how vulnerable our marine environments are, and how much communities and the Nation rely on healthy and resilient ocean and coastal ecosystems. America's stewardship of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes is intrinsically linked to environmental sustainability, human health and well-being, national prosperity, adaptation to climate and other environmental changes, social justice, international diplomacy, and national and homeland security.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 2011年《英国海洋政策宣言》(英文)

    This Marine Policy Statement (MPS) is the framework for preparing Marine Plans and taking decisions affecting the marine environment. It will contribute to the achievement of sustainable development in the United Kingdom marine area. It has been prepared and adopted for the purposes of section 44 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第二卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第一卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:108 下载:0
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 1979年澳大利亚《海岸和解书》(英文)

    At the Premiers Conference on 29 June 1979, the Commonwealth and the States completed an agreement of great importance for the settlement of contentious and complex offshore constitutional issues. The agreement marked the solution of a fundamental problem that has bedevilled Commonwealth-State relations, and represents a major achievement of the policy of co-operative federalism.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 2017-2027年美国纽约州海洋行动计划(英文)

    The preparation of the content within this document was developed by Debra Abercrombie and Karen Chytalo from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and in cooperation and coordination with staff from the New York State Department of State. Funding was provided by the New York State Environmental Protection Fund’s Ocean & Great Lakes Program. Other New York state agencies, federal agencies, estuary programs, the New York Ocean and Great Lakes Coalition, the Shinnecock Indian Nation and ocean-based industry and user groups provided numerous revisions to draft versions of this document which were invaluable. The New York Marine Sciences Consortium provided vital recommendations concerning data and research needs, as well as detailed revisions to earlier drafts.
    作者:纽约州环境保护部 阅读:99 下载:0
  • 2017年美国东北海洋计划(英文)

    The National Ocean Council certified that the Plan is consistent with the National Ocean Policy on December 1, 2016. The Federal members of the NE RPB administer a wide range of statutes and programs that involve or affect the marine environment. These Federal departments and agencies carry out actions under Federal laws involving a wide range of regulatory responsibilities and non-regulatory missions and management activities throughout the Northeast ocean planning area. The specific manner and mechanism each Federal agency will use to implement the Plan will depend on that agency’s mission, authorities, and activities. Each Federal NE RPB member will use the Plan to inform and guide its planning activities and decision making activities.
    作者:NATIONAL OCEAN COUNCIL 阅读:110 下载:0
  • 荷兰《国家水利计划(2009-2015年)》第2部分(英文)

    In the last decade, the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management (Vierde Nota waterhuishouding), the Water Management in the 21st Century Advisory Committee (Commissie Waterbeheer 21e eeuw) and the National Administrative Agreement on Water (Nationaal Bestuursakkoord Water) represented an important impulse for water management. With this first National Water Plan, which is also a framework vision based on the Water Act (Waterwet) and the Spatial Planning Act (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) and which was drafted for the 2009-2015 planning period, we are entering a new phase. Because we want future generations to be able to enjoy the Netherlands as a safe and affluent land of water, we have to find answers now to developments in climate, demography and economy, and invest in sustainable water management. Effective flood defences, the prevention of flooding and waterlogging and drought wherever possible, and good water quality are basic preconditions for prosperity and well-being. These are achievements that the Netherlands owes, in large measure, to water, to its favourable location and to the excellent supply of freshwater. The Netherlands, an attractive country with an abundance of water and high levels of safety, contributes positively towards the quality of the living environment and the conservation of biodiversity. Water is wonderful and the Dutch love it. The aim is crystal clear: the Netherlands, a safe and liveable delta, now and in the future.
    作者:荷兰政府 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 荷兰《国家水利计划(2009-2015年)》第1部分(英文)

    In the last decade, the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management (Vierde Nota waterhuishouding), the Water Management in the 21st Century Advisory Committee (Commissie Waterbeheer 21e eeuw) and the National Administrative Agreement on Water (Nationaal Bestuursakkoord Water) represented an important impulse for water management. With this first National Water Plan, which is also a framework vision based on the Water Act (Waterwet) and the Spatial Planning Act (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) and which was drafted for the 2009-2015 planning period, we are entering a new phase. Because we want future generations to be able to enjoy the Netherlands as a safe and affluent land of water, we have to find answers now to developments in climate, demography and economy, and invest in sustainable water management. Effective flood defences, the prevention of flooding and waterlogging and drought wherever possible, and good water quality are basic preconditions for prosperity and well-being. These are achievements that the Netherlands owes, in large measure, to water, to its favourable location and to the excellent supply of freshwater. The Netherlands, an attractive country with an abundance of water and high levels of safety, contributes positively towards the quality of the living environment and the conservation of biodiversity. Water is wonderful and the Dutch love it. The aim is crystal clear: the Netherlands, a safe and liveable delta, now and in the future.
    作者:荷兰政府 阅读:83 下载:0
  • 2015年荷兰《北海综合管理计划》(英文)

    Fishing, sand extraction, wind farms, shipping and nature – the North Sea has many functions and is the object of a wide range of interests. For a proper management of all these functions guidance through spatial planning is required. That guiding policy is there now, in the form of a ‘North Sea paragraph’ in the Spatial Planning Policy Document. The North Sea paragraph takes relevant international agreements and obligations and national policy frameworks into account. The next step is to organize the implementation, enforcement and other management tasks in such a way that the North Sea manager is able to implement the policy effectively, efficiently and in accordance with existing policy frameworks. The Integrated Management Plan for the North Sea 2015 sets out how the North Sea will be managed in the coming ten years.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 2016年美国《中大西洋地区海洋行动计划》(英文)

    As the Federal, Tribal, and State Co-leads of this historic effort and on behalf of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Body (RPB), we are proud to present the Mid-Atlantic Regional Ocean Action Plan (Plan). This Plan is the result of over three years of collaborative effort by many RPB contributors, partners, and stakeholders and is the first of its kind in our region. It charts the course toward a more integrated approach to managing our shared ocean resources that is grounded in stakeholder engagement. The Plan guides and informs the decisions and practices of RPB member entities and fosters transparent ocean data and information sharing, improved coordination in decision making, and collaboration around specific actions that support ocean ecosystem health and sustainable ocean uses. The planning process will evolve over time, and we look forward to continuing to work with the people of the Mid-Atlantic in advancing this effort. Ultimately, we bear a shared responsibility for the treasured ocean resources upon which our region’s communities, economies, and ecosystems depend. Together, we can seize this opportunity.
    作者:美国海洋能源管理局 阅读:127 下载:0
  • 2006年挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》(英语)

    The ecosystems of the Barents Sea and the sea areas off the Lofoten Islands are of very high environmental value and are rich in living natural resources that are the basis for a considerable level of economic activity. There are major stocks of cod, herring and capelin in the area, and large cold-water coral reefs and seabird colonies of international importance. By international standards, the state of these ecosystems is generally good today, and the area covered by the management plan can be characterised as clean and rich in resources. The Government considers it very important to safeguard the basic structure and functioning of the ecosystems of this area in the long term, so that they continue to be clean, rich and productive.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 2010年《苏格兰海洋法》(英文)

    2010年,苏格兰发布了 一份与英联邦《海洋与海岸促进法》同等地位的《苏格兰海洋法案》,并建立了一个新的海洋综合管理局,以协调苏格兰的海洋管理,称为苏格兰海洋局,其职能包括海事管理、渔业 研究与服务、渔业保护等。
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:60 下载:0
  • 2007年欧盟《海洋综合政策蓝皮书》(英文)

    The seas are Europe's lifeblood. Europe's maritime spaces and its coasts are central to its wellbeing and prosperity – they are Europe's trade routes, climate regulator, sources of food, energy and resources, and a favoured site for its citizens' residence and recreation. Our interactions with the sea are more intense, more varied, and create more value for Europe than ever before. Yet the strain is showing. We are at a crossroads in our relationship with the oceans. On the one hand technology and know-how allow us to extract ever more value from the sea, and more and more people flow to Europe's coasts to benefit from that value. On the other hand, the cumulated effect of all this activity is leading to conflicts of use and to the deterioration of the marine environment that everything else depends on.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:115 下载:0
  • 2006年《欧洲未来海洋政策绿皮书》(英文)

    Any European will remember learning about the great voyages of discovery which opened the eyes of our forebears to the vastness of our planet, to the diversity of its cultures and the richness of its resources. Most of these voyages were made by sea. Most of them required for their success openness to new ideas, meticulous planning, courage and determination. As time went by, they not only opened up previously uncharted areas of the globe, they also generated new technologies such as the chronometer to allow for the exact calculation of longitude and the steam turbine to bring independence from the tyranny of prevailing winds.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:100 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第二卷》(英文)

    Volume 2 of the 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan focuses on the data and scientific aspects of the plan and its implementation. It includes these two separate documents: • Baseline Assessment Five-Year Update: Report on Changes and Trends since 2009 - The Oceans Act mandated a Baseline Assessment as part of the ocean plan and required a review and update of this Baseline Assessment at least every five years. The 2009 Baseline Assessment constituted an extensive cataloguing of the current state of knowledge regarding human uses, natural resources, and other ecosystem components of Massachusetts ocean waters. The 2015 update to the Baseline Assessment is presented here in Volume 2. It reports on the current condition and status, as well as trends since 2009, in Massachusetts marine waters. • Science Framework - This document provides the updated blueprint for ocean management-related science and data priorities and strategies that will support continued evolution of the ocean plan.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第一卷》(英文)

    In 2009, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) issued the Commonwealth’s first‐ever Ocean Management Plan, putting Massachusetts at the forefront of the nation on comprehensive ocean planning and management. This significant milestone, launched with the signing of the Oceans Act in May 2008, was the culmination of an extensive planning process that reflected the dedication of the Bay State to the responsible stewardship of our vast coastal and ocean resources and the sustainable uses they support. EEA, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, worked to collect and analyze the best available science and data on ocean resources and uses and to identify the most efficient and effective management options available. The resulting ocean plan created a pragmatic management structure that enables the Commonwealth to proactively balance current and future uses of ocean waters while protecting critical ocean habitats and promoting sustainable economic development.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 2015年《苏格兰国家海洋计划》(英文)

    Our seas are six times the landmass of Scotland, over 460,000 square kilometres of some of the most productive and diverse resource in the world. Whilst we have been planning for land use for decades, marine planning is a relatively new concept, introduced in Scotland through the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2002年欧盟《海岸带综合管理建议书》(英文)

    In formulating national strategies andmeasures basedon these strategies, Member States shouldfollow the principles of integratedcoastal zone management to ensure goodcoastal zone management, taking into account the good practices identified,inter alia, in the Commission’s demonstration programme on integratedcoastal zone management. In particular, coastal zone management shouldbe basedon:
    作者:Official Journal of the European Communities 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2016年苏格兰彭特兰湾和奥克尼郡水域海洋空间计划(英文)

    This pilot Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan is the result of a successful collaboration between Marine Scotland, Orkney Islands Council and the Highland Council. This working group undertook, in advance of statutory regional marine plans, a pilot process for setting up a planning policy framework.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(中英对照)

    本文对海洋规划的潜在影响进行了大量定性讨论。本文讨论了在没有规划的情况下当前和可预期未来的海洋开发,并概述了海洋规划如何改变未来的发展。除了对某些行政费用的估算之外,本文基本上是定性讨论。虽然本文不是技术性的分析文件,但它为将来的分析提供了有用信息。本文仅评估与东部海洋规划区域有关的影响,并未考虑与整个海洋规划系统有关的影响。东部海洋规划区域重点意味着这不能用作其他海洋规划区域或整个海洋规划系统的成本和效益假设的基础。
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:132 下载:8
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(英文)

    This document provides a largely qualitative discussion of potential impacts of the marine plans. It discusses current and expected future marine development in the absence of plans and provides an overview of how marine plans might alter future development. It is a largely qualitative discussion with the exception of estimates for some administrative costs. While not a technical, analytical document, it provides useful information for future analysis. This document assesses impacts that solely relate to the East Marine Plan areas and does not consider impacts that relate to the marine planning system as a whole. Its East Marine Plan area focus means it cannot be used as a basis for assumptions about costs and benefits in other marine plan areas, or about the marine planning system as a whole.
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:116 下载:1
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划之执行纲要(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:8
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:127 下载:4
  • 中国对黄岩岛主张的法律依据(英文)

    The Huangyan Island' (15'07'N, 117°51>E) lies in the southeast Zhongsha Islands,Sansha City, Hai'nan Province, China. It is about 160nm from Macclesfield Bank and approximately 130 nm from Luzon Island of the Philippines.2 As the only island above sea level during high tide in the Zhongsha Islands, the Island forms a triangleshaped chain of reefs, rocks and islets, some of which are 0.5m to 3m above water,such as South Rock (1.8m) and North Rock (1.5m),3 encompassing a 15m deep lagoon with a total area of 130km2. China's sovereign jurisdiction over the island had never been challenged until April 30, 1997, when the Filipino navy drove an international amateur radio group away from the island and began to claim sovereignty over the Huangyan Island.4 Since then, the Filipino navy has repeatedly detained and even sunk Chinese fishing boats, arrested Chinese fishermen, and carried out socalled law enforcement activities on the Island. Meanwhile, the Philippine baseline law in 20095 and initiation of the arbitral proceedings against China in 2013 have consistently escalated tension with China.
    作者:Wells 阅读:121 下载:0
  • 闭海半闭海合作理论与实践:一些对COC磋商的建议(中英对照)

    在闭海或半闭海合作领域,国际上已有大量成功实践。相关海域的沿岸国按照《公约》规定开展了海洋生物资源、海洋环境保护、海洋科学研究等方面的合作,对于中国与南海周边国家开展合作具有重要的借鉴意义。
    作者:Wells 阅读:128 下载:1
  • 在第三方国家的专属经济区内进行非法、未报告和未管制捕捞活动的情况下,船旗国的义务是什么?(中英对照)

    专属经济区内的国际渔业法律制度由LOSC管辖,其关于专属经济区的规定已被视为结合到习惯国际法中。LOSC第56(1)条规定,在专属经济区内,沿海国拥有“主权权利以探索和开发、保护和管理海底附近水域、海底以及底土的生物或非生物自然资源......”在行使这些主权权利时,沿海国可允许其他国家的船舶在其专属经济区捕鱼。如果沿海国无法捕捞根据LOSC第61(1)条规定为其专属经济区设定的允许捕捞量的全部,则必须允许其他国家的渔船捕捞其可能的捕捞盈余部分。外国船舶可以根据直接从沿海国获得的许可证在沿海国专属经济区内捕捞,或者更常见的是根据沿海国与其船旗国之间允许外国船舶进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞的协议(如此协议在下文称为准入协议)。无论外国船舶根据何种方式进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞,在捕捞时其受到沿海国立法管辖权的约束。这是因为上述和第62(4)条规定的沿海国主权权利,第62(4)条列出了一份沿海国管理其专属经济区内的外国捕捞可能采用的法律和法规的非详尽清单。此类法律法规必须与LOSC“一致”,并且必须就其存在 “适当通知”。
    作者:Wells 阅读:97 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Wells 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(英文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:RECIEL 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 亚太经合组织海洋可持续发展报告2:亚太经合组织落实可持续发展目标14及相关目标(英文)

    The APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report 2 is the result of a collaborative effort of APEC economies together with a number of institutions and individuals with the strong supports from APEC Secretariat. This report would not have been possible without the financial support of the Ministry of Natural Resources, P.R.China who funded the development of the report, including 2017 Workshop on APEC Marine Sustainable Development Report 2.
    作者:亚太经合组织 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 亚太经合组织海洋可持续发展报告2之第4章(中文)

    亚太经合组织做出具体承诺:通过支持“2030年议程”实现可持续发展。亚太经合组织自1989年成立以来,通过引导经济增长、促进贸易和投资,以及加强在一系列环境和发展问题上的跨文化合作,已经为推动区域可持续发展做出了巨大贡献。亚太经合组织也是与海洋有关的讨论和合作的重要平台178。与食品安全、食品营养和食品贸易有关的海洋合作也是APEC工作的重要组成部分。通过与海洋与渔业工作组(OFWG)和其他子论坛的合作,APEC在促进海洋和海洋资源的可持续性,以及促进亚太地区的可持续和包容性增长方面,做出了巨大努力。基于对“可持续增长”的优先考虑,亚太经合组织2019年将“保护我们的海洋和海洋生态系统”作为一个关键议题,这为APEC在该地区不断推进与海洋相关的可持续发展提供了新的机遇和动力。
    作者:亚太经合组织 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 《海洋法律与政策》 2021年第2期 总第2期(季刊)

    《海洋法律与政策》(Marine Law and Policy),ISSN 2709-3948, ISSN 2710-1738 (online), 是海南大学国际海洋法律与争端解决研究中心(HNU-CISLDS)结合大中华地区其他七家兄弟院校 在香港合作创办的学术季刊。本刊的目的在于支持 21 世纪海上丝绸之路的宏大愿景,服务中国 (海南)自由贸易港的具体建设工作。这一平台希望能发挥纠合同志,引入智慧,交流经验与 创新构想的功能,以为公私领域内的读者们服务。本期《海洋法律与政策》刊发的论文包括了自贸港建设中的涉海问题、国际海事组织、海洋 环境保护以及渔民权益保障等公私海洋法律问题。
    作者:《海洋法律与政策》编辑部 阅读:124 下载:0
  • 《海洋法律与政策》 2021年第1期 总第1期(季刊)

    本期《海洋法律与政策》刊发的论文包括了海洋政策与公私海洋法律的几个重大新问题热点。特别是来自香港与台湾的学者专家,分别针对港台地区港口管理,进行了田野调查,发表了他们的研究报告,对于建设海南自由港以及推进21世纪海上丝绸之路的建设,有着特殊重要的意义。
    作者:《海洋法律与政策》编辑部 阅读:131 下载:0
  • 南极罗斯海地区海洋保护区研究和监测计划(中文)

    罗斯海是南太平洋深入南极洲的大海湾,也是人类航海所能到达的地球最南海域之一,有超过1万多个海洋物种在这里栖息,包括企鹅、鲸类、海鸟、巨型鱿鱼和南极犬牙鱼等海洋物种。在科学研究上,罗斯海被认为是地球上最后一块完整的海洋生态系统区域,是研究南极海洋生物以及全球气候变化的理想之地。
    作者:A. Dunn, M. Vacchi and G. Watters (Co-conveners) 阅读:168 下载:0
  • 南极罗斯海地区海洋保护区研究和监测计划(英文)

    罗斯海是南太平洋深入南极洲的大海湾,也是人类航海所能到达的地球最南海域之一,有超过1万多个海洋物种在这里栖息,包括企鹅、鲸类、海鸟、巨型鱿鱼和南极犬牙鱼等海洋物种。在科学研究上,罗斯海被认为是地球上最后一块完整的海洋生态系统区域,是研究南极海洋生物以及全球气候变化的理想之地。
    作者:A. Dunn, M. Vacchi and G. Watters (Co-conveners) 阅读:168 下载:0
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(俄文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:201 下载:0
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(中文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:342 下载:1
  • CIIL南海研究(五):面对国际法律战,如何积极斗争、勇争胜利?

    南海仲裁案实体裁决已出,各方朋友都在询问国际法促进中心有无评论文章,请大家不要着急,给专家们留点看完全部裁决的时间先。 今天推送的文章来自于国际法促进中心发起组织的“南海法律研究组”。研究组由十位中国国际法年轻学者和律师自愿报名组成,针对南海仲裁案管辖权阶段程序、管辖权裁决以及实体阶段程序等5个课题,分工协作,无偿地进行了研究,为南海仲裁案提供客观理性的法律分析,发出中国年轻学者和律师的声音。 此篇是南海法律研究系列报告第五篇,聚焦中方的“不出庭”策略考量以及提出未来策略选项。欢迎各位前辈、同仁和朋友批评指正,一起为南海问题的和平解决和国际法的健康发展献计献策。
    作者:高杨 何佳伟 阅读:2363 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(四):中菲南海仲裁庭管辖权扩张及争端和平解决效果分析

    近年来,国际法庭或者仲裁庭在海洋争端领域的管辖权扩张日趋明显,这集中体现在对涉及领土争端的海洋混合争端拥有管辖权上。包括本次中菲南海仲裁案中Wolfrum仲裁员在内的一些学者认为,在为解决海洋争端之必要情势下,《联合国海洋法公约》(简称“《公约》”)强制争端解决程序对领土争端可以变相、甚至直接地具有管辖权。本文通过分析该种观点的学理基础和司法实践,进行了如下反驳:
    作者:宋可 何佳伟 阅读:2610 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(三):中菲南海仲裁案实体问题仲裁阶段专家背景及证据采信

    继2015年10月29日设于荷兰海牙和平宫的国际常设仲裁院特别仲裁庭就南海仲裁案做出管辖权裁决后,仲裁庭按照《程序规则》第 24 条的规定,在听取了当事方的意见之后,确定于2015年11月24日至30日再次开庭,对该案的实体问题及剩余管辖权和可受理性问题进行审理,并指定了一名技术专家Grant W. Boyes先生,在必要时协助仲裁庭。庭审之前,仲裁庭允许了菲律宾提交地理学家CliveScofield教授和海洋生物学家Kent Carpenter教授两位独立专家证人的意见。
    作者:秦泉 阅读:2108 下载:1
  • CIIL南海研究(二):中菲南海仲裁案管辖权裁决对于争端性质的论证分析

    虽然中方“不参与、不接受”此次中菲南海仲裁的立场是坚定的,但是在一方缺席的情况下,南海仲裁庭依然需要满足《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)对其裁决公正性的要求。根据《公约》附件七第9条的规定,在一方缺席的情况下,仲裁庭依然必须满足自己对争端具有管辖权,且必须满足诉求具有事实和法律的坚实依据。为此,本文将中方立场和仲裁庭管辖权裁决的相应部分一一列出,并进行初步探讨,以此检验仲裁庭是否满足了《公约》附件七第9条的具体要求。其中,中方立场主要的依据是2014年12月7日中国发布的《中华人民共和国政府关于菲律宾共和国所提南海仲裁案管辖权问题的立场文件》。
    作者:王丹维 何佳伟 阅读:2524 下载:0
  • CIIL南海研究(一):国际海洋法法庭日本籍前庭长柳井俊二法官的回避可能和仲裁庭公正性瑕疵

    公正性(Impartiality)是确保公正审判最重要的原则性要求,是各国际法院与法庭权威性立足的根本,也是其判决、裁决得以被认可的保障。本文认为,结合本次中菲南海仲裁庭的组建背景来看,仲裁庭的公正性存在瑕疵可能。对于中菲南海仲裁庭的公正性,最主要的瑕疵体现在其实际最主要组建人——时任国际海洋法法庭庭长的柳井俊二对本案的公正性存在瑕疵,并理应回避组建工作。
    作者:张珂君 阅读:2387 下载:2
  • 序言:南海仲裁案管辖权和程序问题系列研究报告

    南海仲裁案实体裁决宣布在即,国际社会和国内社会都对之报以极大关注。为此,国际法促进中心发起组织了“南海法律研究组”,针对南海仲裁案管辖权阶段程序、管辖权裁决以及实体阶段程序中的5个课题进行了研究。研究组由十位中国国际法年轻学者和律师自愿报名组成,研究由我们合作、无偿地完成。本次研究的目的在于针对南海仲裁,提供客观理性的法律分析,发出中国年轻学者和律师的独立声音。本篇为研究组报告的综述,主要介绍南海仲裁案的仲裁程序和仲裁事项,并简要介绍研究组的5个研究课题成果。
    作者:何佳伟 阅读:2012 下载:0
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  • 联合国教科文组织《全球海洋观测系统2030战略》(中文)

    联合国教科文组织2019年发布的《全球海洋观测系统2030战略》指出,在当前全球变暖和海洋灾害频发的背景下,各国对全球海洋观测的需求大大增加,因此需要建立一个真正一体化的全球海洋观测系统。
    作者:联合国教科文组织 阅读:27 下载:0
  • 联合国报告《安理会与气候变化》(英文)

    在 2021 年 2 月 23 日安全理事会关于气候与安全的公开辩论开始时,世界著名的博物学家大卫·阿滕伯勒发布了一条视频信息,敦促全球合作应对气候危机。 “请不要搞错。 气候变化是人类有史以来面临的最大安全威胁。”他说。
    作者:联合国 阅读:174 下载:0
  • 人类对世界海洋累积影响的时空变化(英文)

    人类对海洋的压力被认为在全球范围内正在增加,但我们对它们的累积变化模式知之甚少。
    作者:NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 阅读:85 下载:1
  • 评估沿海地区气候变化脆弱性的方法(英文)

    越来越多的欧盟人口居住在沿海地区。 大约一半的欧盟人口居住在距海岸 50 公里或更短的地方(ESTAT,2009),其中 19% 的欧盟人口(8600 万人)居住在 10 公里的沿海地带(EEA,2006)。 未来这些数字很可能会增加。 总的来说,这既对沿海资源提出了日益增长的需求,也增加了人们对沿海灾害的暴露程度(Sterr 等,2003)。
    作者:ETC CCA 阅读:85 下载:0
  • 气候变化对地中海沿岸地区的影响(英文)

    Climate change is widely recognised as a serious threat to the world’s environment. In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC, 1996a] concluded that: “the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on climate change” and asserted that climate is expected to continue to change in the future. More recently Tett et al. [1999] argued that the increase of the superficial temperature of the earth-atmosphere system is nearly entirely correlated with anthropic pressures on the climate system. The fact that these changes are likely to occur at a faster rate than any that have occurred during mankind’s recorded history, is also generally agreed upon.
    作者:Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei 阅读:112 下载:0
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  • 美国《北极研究计划2022-2026》(英文)

    2022-2026年北极研究计划优先考虑四个领域:社区复原力和健康、北极系统相互作用、可持续经济和生计,以及风险管理和减灾。
    作者:Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) 阅读:153 下载:0
  • 管辖北极海域的法律是否应该适应不断变化的气候环境?(英文)

    就多边协议的制定而言,北极海域的法律制度长期以来一直处于次要地位。
    作者:加利福尼亚西部国际法杂志 阅读:95 下载:13
  • 《海洋法公约》和北极?(英文)

    1982年通过的《联合国海洋法公约》据说是海洋宪法。由于该法律文书没有明确提及北极,因此可能会提出一个问题,即其适用范围是否延伸到这些北部水域?
    作者:比利时国际法评论 阅读:87 下载:1
  • 俄罗斯北极航行的法律制度(英文)

    自从 1648 年证实了东北航道的存在,并且在维特·白令 (1725-1728) 和大北方探险 (1733-1743) 的远征之后完成了北部海岸线的测绘,“欧亚大陆上空的北极海上航运大陆一直在不断发展,首先是俄罗斯帝国,然后是苏联,现在是俄罗斯联邦。
    作者:J. OF TRANSNATIONAL LAW & POLICY 阅读:82 下载:1
  • 南极洲与新海洋法(英文)

    本文的目的是考察新海洋法对南极法律制度的影响。
    作者:CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 阅读:77 下载:0
  • 俄罗斯《2035年前国家北极政策基础》(中文)

    2020年3月5日,俄总统普京签署命令,正式批准出台 《俄罗斯2035年前国家北极政策基础》。该文件是俄罗斯国家安全保障领域的战略规划型文件,旨在保障俄罗斯在北极的国家利益。文件指出了俄罗斯当前在北极地区面临的国家安全方面的主要威胁和挑战,提出了俄罗斯2035年前在北极地区的国家政策目标、政策实施领域和主要任务,并确定了落实国家北极政策的主要机制。
    作者:俄罗斯联邦总统办公室 阅读:342 下载:1
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  • 人类对世界海洋累积影响的时空变化(英文)

    人类对海洋的压力被认为在全球范围内正在增加,但我们对它们的累积变化模式知之甚少。
    作者:NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 阅读:85 下载:1
  • 远洋保护区:海洋保护中缺失的维度(英文)

    远洋海洋中的保护区比地球上任何其他生态系统都要少。 尽管越来越多的人支持将海洋保护区 (MPA) 作为远洋保护的工具,但对动态远洋环境中基于地点的管理的生态、后勤和经济可行性也存在许多批评。
    作者:Trends in Ecology and Evolution 阅读:87 下载:0
  • 知而不为:优先保护区的选择与研究-实施差距(英文)

    保护评估是一门迅速发展的学科,其既定目标是设计保护区网络,通过将优先区域与退化或破坏它们的活动分开,代表并确保自然(即物种、栖息地和环境过程)的持久性。尽管如此,尽管新兴的科学文献不断完善这些分配保护资源的技术,但人们普遍认为,保护评估很少转化为实际保护自然的行动。我们回顾了同行评审期刊上的保护评估文献,并对这些研究的作者进行了问卷调查。同行评审的科学文献中公布的三分之二的保护评估没有提供保护行动,主要是因为大多数研究人员从未计划实施。Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it is widely believed that conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions that actually conserve nature.We reviewed the conservation assessment literature in peer-reviewed journals and conducted survey questionnaires of the authors of these studies. Two-thirds of conservation assessments published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature do not deliver conservation action, primarily because most researchers never plan for implementation.
    作者:Conservation Biology 阅读:62 下载:0
  • 内部生态系统反馈增强了波罗的海固氮蓝藻的繁殖并使管理复杂化(英文)

    Cyanobacteria capable of biological fixation of dissolved atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2 fixation) form extensive blooms which have been a recurring phenomenon in the Baltic Sea since at least the 1960s (1). They are noxious and relevant to the ecosystem and to society because of the formation of a conspicuous surface scum, toxicity, and large nitrogen inputs through N2 fixation. Traditionally, phosphorus alone has been considered as the limiting nutrient for N2-fixing cyanobacteria.In this article we present how elemental cycles of nitrogen and oxygen are interlinked with the phosphorus cycle in basin-wide and long-term processes. To manage cyanobacteria blooms, we must resolve the relative importance of nutrient supply and internal biogeochemical processes.
    作者:BioOne 阅读:72 下载:4
  • 评估和排序全球海洋生态系统对人为威胁的脆弱性(英文)

    Human activities now affect nearly every marine ecosystem (e.g., Glover & Smith 2003; POC 2003). The number and variety of threats can be overwhelming to management and conservation efforts. Mapping where threats occur is important for management, but does not explicitly account for differences in the extent and nature of ecosystem responses to threats. For example, bottom-trawl fisheries have significantly more severe and long-lasting impacts on epibenthic communities living on hard versus soft substrates and even greater impact with increasing water depth because individual growth rates decrease and recovery times increase (Watling & Norse 1998; Thrush & Dayton 2002). Understanding these differences in ecosystem response is critical to knowing which threats have the biggest impact on different ecosystems and how to best address them at different scales. Quantifying these differences allows threats to be ranked based on the severity of their impact.
    作者:Conservation Biology 阅读:88 下载:0
  • 海上船舶交通对海鸟的影响:对海洋保护和空间规划的启示(英文)

    Spatial planning of anthropogenic activities in the offshore zone is currently in progress in many countries worldwide. Most activities in marine ecosystems are in some way related to shipping. Disturbance by ships can be a major threat to birds, through affects on behavior,reproduction, and fitness of individuals in colonies (e.g., Burger 1998, see review in Carney and Sydeman 1999), as well as on foraging or resting habitats (e.g.,Rodgers and Schwikert 2003, Stolen 2003, Kaiser et al.2006 ). However, the effects of ship traffic on seabirds are still too poorly understood to allow for either proper spatial planning or conservation management actions.
    作者:the Ecological Society of America 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 南非开普植物区陆地生态系统生境变化的现状和未来对生物多样性的威胁(英文)

    The formulation of an effective strategic plan for biodiversity conservation in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) requires an assessment of the current situation with regard to habitat transformation, and an explicit framework for predicting the likelihood of remaining habitat (i.e. that potentially available for conservation) being transformed. This paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of the current and future extent of three important factors that threaten biodiversity in the CFR: cultivation for intensive agriculture (including commercial forestry plantations), urbanisation, and stands of invasive (self-sown) alien trees and shrubs.The extent of habitat transformation was mapped at the scale of 1:250,000, using primarily satellite imagery. We compared models derived from a rule-based approach relying on expert knowledge and a regression-tree technique to identify other areas likely to be affected by these factors in future.
    作者:Biological Conservation 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 南大洋的保护模式与过程:爱德华王子群岛海洋保护区的设计(英文)

    South Africa is currently proclaiming a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of its sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. The objectives of the MPA are to: 1) contribute to a national and global representative system of MPAs, 2) serve as a scientific reference point to inform future management, 3) contribute to the recovery of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), and 4) reduce the bird bycatch of the toothfish fishery, particularly of albatrosses and petrels. This study employs systematic conservation planning methods to delineate a MPA within the EEZ that will conserve biodiversity patterns and processes within sensible management boundaries, while minimizing conflict with the legal toothfish fishery. After collating all available distributional data on species, benthic habitats and ecosystem processes, we used C-Plan software to delineate a MPA with three management zones: four IUCN Category Ia reserves (13% of EEZ); two Conservation Zones (21% of EEZ); and three Category IV reserves (remainder of EEZ). Compromises between conservation target achievement and the area required by the MPA are apparent in the final reserve design. The proposed MPA boundaries are expected to change over time as new data become available and as impacts of climate change become more evident.
    作者:Antarctic Science 阅读:79 下载:0
  • 评估人类活动造成的栖息地风险,为沿海和海洋空间规划提供信息:伯利兹的示范(英文)

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize.Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of highrisk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses.Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.
    作者:Environmental Research Letters 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 人类对海洋生态系统影响的全球地图(英文)

    The management and conservation of the world’s oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain,particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.
    作者:Science 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 全球生物多样性热点——南非开普省植物区保护计划(英文)

    We produced a conservation plan that achieved conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the species- and endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Features given quantitative conservation targets were land classes, localities of Proteaceae and selected vertebrate (freshwater fish, amphibians and reptiles) species, population sizes for medium- and large-sized mammals, and six types of spatial surrogates for ecological and evolutionary processes. The plan was developed in several stages using C-Plan, a decision support system linked to a geographic information system. Accepting the existing reserve system as part of the plan, we first selected spatially fixed surrogates for biodiversity processes; then we included those planning units that were essential for achieving targets for land classes, Proteaceae and vertebrate species; next we included areas required to accommodate population and design targets for large and medium-sized mammals; we then selected planning units required to conserve entire upland–lowland and macroclimatic gradients; and finally we resolved the options for achieving remaining targets while also consolidating the design of conservation areas. The result was a system of conservation areas, requiring, in addition to the existing reserve system, 52% of the remaining extant habitat in the planning domain, as well as restorable habitat, that will promote the persistence and continued diversification of much of the region’s biota in the face of ongoing habitat loss and climate change. After describing the planning process, we discuss implementation priorities in relation to conservation value and vulnerability to habitat loss, as well as socio-economic, political and institutional constraints and opportunities.
    作者:Elsevier 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 生物多样性丧失对海洋生态系统服务功能的影响(英文)

    Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration of biodiversity, in contrast, increased productivity fourfold and decreased variability by 21%, on average. We conclude that marine biodiversity loss is increasingly impairing the ocean's capacity to provide food, maintain water quality, and recover from perturbations. Yet available data suggest that at this point, these trends are still reversible.
    作者:SCIENCE 阅读:111 下载:0
  • 2003年澳大利亚《大堡礁珊瑚海洋公园海域多用途区划》(英文)

    The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (the Act) provides for the establishment, control, care and development of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (the Marine Park). The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (the Authority) is responsible for the management of the Marine Park.The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 is the primary planning instrument for the conservation and management of the Marine Park.
    作者:DAVID KEMP Minister for the Environment and Heritage 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • OSPAR公约对管理国家管辖范围以外的保护区之影响(中文)

    各种国际条约机构和非政府组织不断敦促各国在国家管辖范围以外的地区(ABNJ)建立海洋保护区网络(MPA)。尽管仍未实现这一目标,但《保护东北大西洋海洋环境公约》(OSPAR公约)可以作为一个示范,说明东北大西洋在该区域层面所做的努力。但是,这些有效保护海洋环境的努力受到《联合国海洋法公约》(UNCLOS)的限制。同样, OSPAR公约本身对此类保护区的保护范围也有限制。OSPAR公约没有充分涵盖可能干扰保护区的所有人类对海洋的利用活动,并且缺少机会实施国际化的执法措施。因此,在OSPAR模式下采取有效保护措施的责任最终仍由各个缔约方承担,即由缔约方承诺制定更严格的标准并就其执行达成一致。尽管如此,诸如报告职责之类的“软”义务仍适合用于收集MPA保护和利用所需要的有关数据。此外,与区域渔业管理机构的合作可以更好地保护这些地区的生物资源。最后,OSPAR海洋保护区可引起人们对特别脆弱的生态系统的关注,并促进诸如在粮农组织(FAO)主持下制定的保护标准和措施。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
  • OSPAR公约对管理国家管辖范围以外的保护区之影响(英文)

    各种国际条约机构和非政府组织不断敦促各国在国家管辖范围以外的地区(ABNJ)建立海洋保护区网络(MPA)。尽管仍未实现这一目标,但《保护东北大西洋海洋环境公约》(OSPAR公约)可以作为一个示范,说明东北大西洋在该区域层面所做的努力。但是,这些有效保护海洋环境的努力受到《联合国海洋法公约》(UNCLOS)的限制。同样, OSPAR公约本身对此类保护区的保护范围也有限制。OSPAR公约没有充分涵盖可能干扰保护区的所有人类对海洋的利用活动,并且缺少机会实施国际化的执法措施。因此,在OSPAR模式下采取有效保护措施的责任最终仍由各个缔约方承担,即由缔约方承诺制定更严格的标准并就其执行达成一致。尽管如此,诸如报告职责之类的“软”义务仍适合用于收集MPA保护和利用所需要的有关数据。此外,与区域渔业管理机构的合作可以更好地保护这些地区的生物资源。最后,OSPAR海洋保护区可引起人们对特别脆弱的生态系统的关注,并促进诸如在粮农组织(FAO)主持下制定的保护标准和措施。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:105 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Wells 阅读:125 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(英文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:RECIEL 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 国家管辖范围以外的海洋保护区:我的是我的,你以为是你的也是我的(中文)

    本文根据相关的全球目标,分析了与建立海洋保护区(MPA),尤其是在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA有关的进展和挑战,与MPA有关的迷思甚嚣尘上,如近期由于在国家管辖范围之外建立MPA的提议而引起的法律和体制属性的问题。特别是,本文聚焦于与建立这些MPA有关的问题,因为这些问题与根据《联合国海洋法公约》持续建立沿海国的大陆架外缘的进程有关。
    作者:Charlotte Salpin and Valentina Germani 阅读:144 下载:0
  • 在海洋保护区应用IUCN全球保护标准(英文)

    Applying IUCN’s Global Conservation Standards to MPAs is a synthesis of the existing IUCN Green List Standard for Protected and Conserved Areasi, together with current relevant policies taken from approved IUCN Resolutions and Guidance documentsii. Designed to support Governments, Agencies, NGOs, Donors, Community-Based Organisations, MPA managers and many others, this document brings all this information together for the first timeinto this single format to inform the fair and effective design and management of MPAs.
    作者:IUCN WCPA 阅读:185 下载:0
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(中文)

    研究和监测计划(RMP)对海洋保护区(MPAs)的开发和实施至关重要。依据CM91-04相关规定,委员会应采纳研究和监测计划,以便为定期审查程序提供信息,该过程将用于评估海洋保护区的具体目标是否仍然适合或已经达到。
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:173 下载:1
  • 关于拟制CCAMLR海洋保护区研究和监测计划(英文)

    This paper is presented for consideration by CCAMLR and may contain unpublished data, analyses, and/or conclusions subject to change. Data in this paper shall not be cited or used for purposes other than the work of the CAMLR Commission, Scientific Committee or their subsidiary bodies without the permission of the originators and/or owners of the data.
    作者:中国代表团 阅读:163 下载:0
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  • 美国海岸警卫队2020年报告:非法、未报告和不受管制的捕鱼战略展望(英文)

    非法、未报告和无管制(IUU)捕捞是对美国国家利益的普遍安全威胁。非法、无管制和未报告的捕捞活动破坏了国际协定和渔业保护措施,危害了全球粮食安全,对脆弱的沿海国家造成了明显的不稳定影响。
    作者:美国海岸警卫队 阅读:57 下载:0
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 罗马尼亚黑海沿岸鲱鱼的种群参数和开发率估计(英文)

    Sex ratio, morphometric characteristics, age and growth for Pontic shad from Romanian Black Sea Coast were examined. A total of 2.133 individuals were caught between March 2012 and September 2013. Female : male sex ratio was 0.62. According to the age reading, distribution varied form II to V year. The von Bertalanffy equation and growth performance index were determined by ESP software in Pontic shad. The asymptotic length (L∞ = L infinity) of Pontic shad generated by the ELEFAN I method, after introducing total length data for the two years of study, was 41.5. The natural mortality instantaneous coefficient (M) of the entire Pontic shad population, calculated according to Pauly’s empirical equation, using the growth parameters of the Von Bertalanffy formula and the mean annual temperature of the two study years of 13oC, recorded the following values: M = 0.585 in 2012 and M = 0.639 in 2013. According with the resultants, it is recommended to perform a sustainable fishing which allows the capture of legal-sized of fish.
    作者:sciendo 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 基于生态系统的海洋渔业空间规划和管理:为什么以及如何进行?(英文)

    In a 2009 paper by Worm et al., fisheries biologists and conservation biologists found common ground in recommending spatial planning to benefit marine fisheries and biodiversity. Frontiers on land and in the ocean have few users relative to resources; as this ratio increases, governance suitable to the frontier no longer works because people’s interests collide and biodiversity is lost. Increasing ocean uses and troubled fisheries are reasons to shift to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning and management, which reflect patterns and processes of both fish and people. Protecting places can eliminate fragmentation, spatial and temporal mismatches caused by “siloed” sectoral management, where agencies that regulate different sectors in the same places largely ignore the needs of other sectors. Modern fishery management does not reflect the heterogeneity of fish populations and human uses. By reducing fishing mortality to zero, one spatial tool, marine reserves, restores large female fishes, which produce more eggs, and aids recovery of species in which females become males at larger sizes. Reserves can also maintain fishes’ genetic structure. Australia created the “gold standard” for marine spatial planning in Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, a mosaic of ecosystems with differing availability to fishing. Other nations are adopting this approach. Even the best spatial plans will have problems that cross ecosystem boundaries, but advantages accrue to fishermen who stay within designated areas and let fish come to them. Areas can be deliberately configured to improve both biodiversity conservation and fishery yields and to save on fishermen’s fuel costs.
    作者:BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE 阅读:79 下载:0
  • 在第三方国家的专属经济区内进行非法、未报告和未管制捕捞活动的情况下,船旗国的义务是什么?(中英对照)

    专属经济区内的国际渔业法律制度由LOSC管辖,其关于专属经济区的规定已被视为结合到习惯国际法中。LOSC第56(1)条规定,在专属经济区内,沿海国拥有“主权权利以探索和开发、保护和管理海底附近水域、海底以及底土的生物或非生物自然资源......”在行使这些主权权利时,沿海国可允许其他国家的船舶在其专属经济区捕鱼。如果沿海国无法捕捞根据LOSC第61(1)条规定为其专属经济区设定的允许捕捞量的全部,则必须允许其他国家的渔船捕捞其可能的捕捞盈余部分。外国船舶可以根据直接从沿海国获得的许可证在沿海国专属经济区内捕捞,或者更常见的是根据沿海国与其船旗国之间允许外国船舶进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞的协议(如此协议在下文称为准入协议)。无论外国船舶根据何种方式进入沿海国专属经济区捕捞,在捕捞时其受到沿海国立法管辖权的约束。这是因为上述和第62(4)条规定的沿海国主权权利,第62(4)条列出了一份沿海国管理其专属经济区内的外国捕捞可能采用的法律和法规的非详尽清单。此类法律法规必须与LOSC“一致”,并且必须就其存在 “适当通知”。
    作者:Wells 阅读:97 下载:0
  • 2021年全球渔业指数:评估世界海洋渔业的可持续性(英文)

    在一个健康的星球上,却没有一个健康的海洋,海洋的健康状况正在明显下降。我们时代最大的任务之一就是扭转这种下降的趋势,恢复海洋的健康。我相信,我们能够做到,但我们不能再拖延推诿了。我们的子孙后代未来的安全要求我们现在就采取行动……
    作者:明德鲁基金会 阅读:230 下载:0
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  • 澳大利亚海底测绘数据对蓝色经济的价值(英文)

    海底测绘是一项鲜为人知的活动,但对许多行业来说,这些数据至关重要。 主要例子包括: – 商业捕鱼和水产养殖:运营商需要海底测绘数据来进行安全航行,指导捕鱼和选择水产养殖地点,并尽量减少相关的环境影响。 – 海上发电:海底测绘数据提供了有关海底特征的有用信息,可为最佳现场剖面提供信息,为获得环境和规划批准以及建立所需基础设施(如管道和风力涡轮机)提供证据。 – 旅游业:海底测绘对于旅游业经营者安全航行和减少与锚地相关的环境影响至关重要。
    作者:澳大利亚地球科学局 阅读:18 下载:0
  • OceanCare《2021年噪声与深海采矿报告》(英文)

    本报告概述了深海采矿(DSM)活动产生的水下噪声排放及其对海洋生物的潜在影响的最新知识。报告还总结了水下噪声的现有法律和政策框架,包括其在该地区DSM活动管理方面的缺陷。最后,本文就填补知识空白的必要步骤提出了建议,并为DSM活动产生的噪音的决策奠定了坚实的基础。
    作者:OceanCare 阅读:78 下载:0
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  • 欧洲海岸带综合管理战略:一般原则和政策选择(英文)

    The European Commission’s Demonstration Programme on Integrated Coastal Zone Management was launched in 1996 as a joint initiative of DGs XI, XIV and XVI, with substantial contributions from other DGs, particularly XII and the JRC, as well as the EEA. The Programme is based around 35 local and regional projects* to demonstrate the application of ICZM, a series of cross-cutting thematic analyses and research projects, complemented by regular meetings with an experts group (consisting of national experts and representatives of local administrations, of socio-economic actors, and of NGOs) and by extensive contact with other outside organizations.
    作者:欧委会 阅读:118 下载:0
  • 粮农组织立法研究:建立和加强海岸综合管理的国家法律框架(英文)

    More than a decade ago the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) published Legal and Institutional Aspects of Integrated Coastal Area Management in National Legislation1. The preface to that publication pointed out that integrated coastal area management law was a relatively new the field and that few jurisdictions had comprehensive legal frameworks to promote integrated coastal management. The situation has changed dramatically since then. Integrated coastal management (ICM) is now widely accepted throughout the world as the best approach to dealing with coastal issues and the 1990s saw a proliferation of legislative reform processes throughout the world aimed at supporting the implementation of ICM. This trend remains strong and many countries, including most of the Member States of the European Union, are in the process of strengthening the legislative basis for ICM.
    作者:FAO 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 2016年《伯利兹沿海地区综合管理计划》(英文)

    The coastal zone is one of Belize’s greatest assets, and is vital to the Belizean way of life. Belize’s highly productive coastal zone is the resource base that supports a broad range of economic activities and contributes significantly to the environmental, social and cultural fabric of our country. It is therefore imperative that we are able to identify and implement informed management solutions that will aid us as a people and a government to safeguard the wealth of coastal and marine resources from which we all benefit. The National Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Belize is a comprehensive and cross-sectoral planning framework that offers robust strategic solutions that build on the national agenda for growth, sustainable development and improved resources management. It links the economic potential and ecological value of the coastal zone with a balanced mix of utilization and conservation, thereby promoting the long-term viability of the Belizean coastal zone. Equally important is that the Plan will ensure that we strengthen the governance of coastal resources by effectively facilitating the transition from sectoral management regimes to coordinated, cross-sectoral decision-making processes at local and national levels.
    作者:Coastal Zone Management Authority 阅读:86 下载:0
  • 1994年《智利海岸带与海洋利用政策》(西班牙文)

    Que el borde costero del litoral, esto es aquella franja del territorio que comprende los terrenos de playa fiscales, la playa, las bahías, golfos, estrechos y canales interiores, y el mar territorial de la República, conforma una unidad geográfica y física de especial importancia para el desarrollo integral y armónico del país.
    作者:智利政府 阅读:99 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第二卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 2010年美国《罗德岛特殊海域管理规划(第一卷)》(英文)

    Rhode Island’s offshore waters are an ecologically unique region—the Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound ecosystems, which are shallow, near shore continental shelf waters, are located at the boundary of two bio-geographic provinces, the Acadian to the north (Cape Cod to the Gulf of Maine) and the Virginian to the south (Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras). The area is dynamically connected to Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean via the Inner Continental Shelf. While this unique positioning places this ecosystem at high risk of impacts from global climate change, this positioning also allows it to contain and host an interesting biodiversity of fish, marine mammals, birds, and sea turtles that travel throughout this region, thriving on its rich habitats, microscopic organisms, and other natural resources.
    作者:罗德岛海岸资源管理委员会 阅读:108 下载:0
  • 1972年《美国海岸带管理法》(英文)

    The term ‘‘coastal zone’’ means the coastal waters (including the lands therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes, islands, transitional and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends, in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 U.S.C. 749), the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 U.S.C. 1705), as applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent necessary to control shorelands, the uses of which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise. Excluded from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government, its officers or agents.
    作者:美国国会 阅读:123 下载:0
  • 2009年《英国海岸带与海洋准入法》

    《海洋和海岸带准入法案》是英国为实现海洋可持续发展目标所搭建的法律体系的基础。作为新的管理政策的一部分,在该法案的架构下,英国成立了海事管理机构(Marine Management Organization),并对海洋与海岸带管理的诸多方面进行改革,如确立规划政策和海洋许可证制度、实现海洋保护区网络化、由更多地关注环境问题的近海渔业与保护局(Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authorities)取代海洋渔业委员会(Sea Fisheries Committees)、提高海岸带使用标准、更加方便地提供和使用海洋环境数据和信息以及加强海岸带和河口管理等。当然,该法案在执行层面还存在漏洞,对于海洋保护区也缺乏具体目标。尽管如此,其仍然是英国首个关注海洋与海岸带综合管理的全面法律,是重要的里程碑。
    作者:英国国会 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 2009年美国《有效海岸带和海洋空间规划临时框架》(英语)

    Coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) is one of the nine priority objectives proposed in the Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force (Task Force) of September 10, 2009 (Interim Report). This framework for CMSP in the United States provides a definition of CMSP, identifies the reasons for engaging in CMSP, and describes its geographic scope. It articulates national CMSP goals and guiding principles that would be adhered to in CMSP efforts and the eventual development and implementation of coastal and marine spatial plans (CMS Plans). In addition, this framework describes how CMSP and CMS Plans would be regional in scope and developed cooperatively among Federal, State, tribal, local authorities, and regional governance structures, with substantial stakeholder and public input.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 阅读:130 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第二卷》(英文)

    Volume 2 of the 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan focuses on the data and scientific aspects of the plan and its implementation. It includes these two separate documents: • Baseline Assessment Five-Year Update: Report on Changes and Trends since 2009 - The Oceans Act mandated a Baseline Assessment as part of the ocean plan and required a review and update of this Baseline Assessment at least every five years. The 2009 Baseline Assessment constituted an extensive cataloguing of the current state of knowledge regarding human uses, natural resources, and other ecosystem components of Massachusetts ocean waters. The 2015 update to the Baseline Assessment is presented here in Volume 2. It reports on the current condition and status, as well as trends since 2009, in Massachusetts marine waters. • Science Framework - This document provides the updated blueprint for ocean management-related science and data priorities and strategies that will support continued evolution of the ocean plan.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2015年美国《马萨诸塞州海洋管理计划第一卷》(英文)

    In 2009, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) issued the Commonwealth’s first‐ever Ocean Management Plan, putting Massachusetts at the forefront of the nation on comprehensive ocean planning and management. This significant milestone, launched with the signing of the Oceans Act in May 2008, was the culmination of an extensive planning process that reflected the dedication of the Bay State to the responsible stewardship of our vast coastal and ocean resources and the sustainable uses they support. EEA, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, worked to collect and analyze the best available science and data on ocean resources and uses and to identify the most efficient and effective management options available. The resulting ocean plan created a pragmatic management structure that enables the Commonwealth to proactively balance current and future uses of ocean waters while protecting critical ocean habitats and promoting sustainable economic development.
    作者:马萨诸塞能源和环境事务执行办公室 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 2002年欧盟《海岸带综合管理建议书》(英文)

    In formulating national strategies andmeasures basedon these strategies, Member States shouldfollow the principles of integratedcoastal zone management to ensure goodcoastal zone management, taking into account the good practices identified,inter alia, in the Commission’s demonstration programme on integratedcoastal zone management. In particular, coastal zone management shouldbe basedon:
    作者:Official Journal of the European Communities 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 美国《俄勒冈州领海计划(1994年)》(英文)

    Ocean planning in Oregon has evolved from strong public interests in coastal use and protection that began long before statehood This historic concern for the coast has involved several Governors, the Oregon Legislature, and, as always, a vocal and active public.
    作者:俄勒冈州政府 阅读:131 下载:0
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  • 在巴斯克大陆架(比斯开湾)上选择合适区域安装波浪能转换器(WECs)的海洋空间规划方法(英文)

    Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the wave energy production.As a new use of the ocean, a Spatial Planning approach is proposed to provide a mechanism to achieve consensus among the sectors operating at present, together with the identification of the most suitable locations to accommodate the Wave Energy Converters (WECs), in the near future. In this contribution: (a) a methodology for the establishment of a Suitability Index (SI) for WECs installation location selection is proposed; (b) the spatial distribution of the SI is mapped; and finally, (c) the accessible wave energy potential has been calculated for the entire Basque continental shelf. As the SI represents the appropriateness of several locations for WECs installation, while minimizing the conflict with other marine uses, the first step in the development of the analysis involved gathering all such information that may be likely to determine, or influence, the decision-making process. Seventeen information layers (among them 10 technical, 4 environmental, and 3 socioeconomical), corresponding to the identified key factors, including the theoretical wave energy in the study area, were generated to define their spatial distribution. Geographical Information System algorithms were used then in the assessment of the total theoretical energy potential and the accessible theoretical energy potential; these were calculated excluding areas where conflicts with other uses occur, such as navigation regulations or designated Marine Protected Areas.
    作者:Coastal Management 阅读:68 下载:0
  • 用于评估海洋空间规划方案的GIS建模框架:德国专属经济区海上风电场和水产养殖的协同定位(英文)

    The concept of co-location of marine areas receives an increased significance in the light of sustainable development in the already heavily used offshore marine realm. Within this study, different spatial colocation scenarios for the coupling of offshore aquacultures and wind farms are evaluated in order to support efficient and sustainable marine spatial management strategies. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) techniques were combined to index suitable co-sites in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea. The MCE was based on criteria such as temperature, salinity or oxygen. In total, 13 possible aquaculture candidates (seaweed, bivalves, fish and crustaceans) were selected for the scenario configuration. The GIS modelling framework proved to be powerful in defining potential co-location sites. The aquaculture candidate oarweed (Laminaria digitata) revealed the highest suitability scores at 10–20 m depth from April to June, followed by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) at 20–30 m depth and dulse (Palmaria palmata) and Sea belt (Saccharina latissima) at 0–10 m depth between April and June. In summary, results showed several wind farms were de facto suitable sites for aquaculture since they exhibited high suitability scores for Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems combining fish species, bivalves and seaweeds. The present results illustrate how synergies may be realised between competing needs of both offshore wind energy and offshore IMTA in the German EEZ of the North Sea. This might offer guidance to stakeholders and assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable sites for pilot projects using IMTA techniques.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
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  • 使用系统保护规划支持海洋空间规划并实现跨界本格拉生态系统的海洋保护目标(英文)

    近年来,人类对海洋空间的需求和竞争显着增加。 这种扩大的人类活动导致栖息地退化、物种灭绝和生态系统服务交付受损。 因此,通过为生物多样性和生态过程服务以维持人类福祉所依赖的生态系统健康、功能和服务,越来越被认为是全球优先事项。
    作者:Ocean and Coastal Management 阅读:63 下载:0
  • 立陶宛海海洋空间试点计划(英文)

    立陶宛海域面积不超过7000平方公里,包括库尔斯环礁湖面积。 它与北部的拉脱维亚海域、南部的俄罗斯联邦(加里宁格勒州)和西部的瑞典接壤。
    作者:BaltSeaPlan 阅读:71 下载:0
  • 设得兰群岛海洋空间规划的回顾与评价(英文)

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 是一门快速发展的学科,由欧盟委员会提议的指令表示,旨在为欧盟水域和沿海地区的 MSP 和综合沿海管理创建一个通用框架。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:86 下载:0
  • 区域海洋空间规划——数据收集和制图过程(英文)

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 越来越被认为是海洋生态系统可持续管理的重要工具 。 虽然 MSP 有多种定义,但联合国教科文组织将其定义为“分析和分配海洋区域人类活动的空间和时间分布的公共过程,以实现通常通过政治过程指定的生态、经济和社会目标”。
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划建模:工具、概念和应用(英文)

    本报告总结了将建模融入海洋空间规划 (MSP) 和战略环境评估 (SEA) 的最重要方面,作为在欧盟 BaltSeaPlan (BSP) 项目框架内进行的评估的一部分。
    作者:BaltSeaPlan 阅读:89 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:概念、现行做法和与其他管理方法的联系(英文)

    近年来,海洋空间规划 (MSP) 作为一种新的范式,以实现更综合的、基于生态系统的海洋区域管理,已经变得相当重要。各国,特别是在西北欧使用密集的海域,都在开发和应用MSP。
    作者:Fanny Douvere 阅读:92 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:实现和评估整合(英文)

    沿海国家正在以越来越快的速度进行海洋空间规划 (MSP)。一些 MSP 努力旨在规划国家以下一级的区域,而另一些则在国家专属经济区内从海岸延伸至 200 海里。
    作者:Marine Science 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 海洋空间规划:大加勒比地区生态系统管理的第一步(英文)

    大加勒比地区沿海生态系统的迅速衰退正在进入第五个十年。加勒比海洋实验室协会 (AMLC) 的实验室已经完成了一些记录这种下降及其原因的最佳科学。加勒比保护先驱们对这种趋势感到震惊,建立了遍布整个地区的海洋保护区 (MPA)。
    作者:Biología Tropical 阅读:75 下载:0
  • 立陶宛波罗的海沿岸石油泄漏敏感性绘图(英文)

    本研究为立陶宛沿海地区开发了一个综合环境评估工具,该工具充分考虑了D-6石油钻井平台、波罗的海东南部船舶交通以及Būtingė石油码头运营所造成的重大石油泄漏风险。
    作者:BALTICA 阅读:84 下载:9
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
  • 调查如何在海洋空间规划中解决累积影响的备选方案

    海洋空间规划 (MSP) 是当前欧洲、英国和苏格兰环境议程的一个重要方面。欧盟委员会最近发布的指令草案旨在为欧盟水域和沿海地区的 MSP 和综合沿海管理建立一个共同框架,这表明海洋和沿海水域的可持续管理是一个紧迫的问题。设得兰群岛海洋空间规划 (SMSP) 的制定于 2006 年由苏格兰政府发起,是渐进式区域海洋空间规划的一个例子。 SMSP 成功地提供了一个政策框架和基线空间数据来指导海洋开发的布局。通过政策,提出建议,提出方向,突出发展机遇。根据基于生态系统的风险评估和对现有海洋活动和用途的广泛了解,绘制设得兰群岛周围累积压力的模型是确定行动领域和制定海洋政策的下一步。该模型可用于可比较的海洋计划区域,可以访问全面的地图活动数据和当地专业知识,以开发自己的方法来解决累积影响。这项研究还符合海洋战略框架指令,该指令要求分析对海洋水域环境状况的主要压力和影响,包括人类活动,其中包括主要的累积和协同效应。 Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.
    作者:Ocean & Coastal Management 阅读:85 下载:0
  • 欧洲联盟的综合海洋政策——巩固沿海和海洋信息以支持海洋空间规划(英文)

    Launch of the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union in 2007 served as important factor that stimulates consolidation of coastal and marine information to support policy implementation. Policy’s action plan provides approaches for maritime governance, research and planning relevant to information. In particular, roadmap for maritime spatial planning stimulates development of coastal and marine GIS. Article reviews the current general status of coastal and marine systems and puts them in the context of the policy actions. Main focus is on formation of geospatial information platform for integrated assessment and ecosystem-based management of coastal and marine areas. Recent developments in data, indicator and information systems are summarized in European perspective: better characterization of maritime space and marine ecosystems, development of GMES Marine Core service and related in situ data collection;data harmonisation, interoperability and access, promoted by Shared Environmental Information System principles.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:82 下载:0
  • 波罗的海地区海洋空间规划多层次协商手册(英文)

    The sea is a complex and fragile ecosystem providing goods and services that are used by many actors: sectors (e.g. energy, fishery, shipping, tourism) and nations (e.g. 9 countries around the Baltic). Multiple interventions of these actors, often not taking account of actions undertaken by others, cause cumulative processes in the ecosystem leading to often irreversible changes in the marine resources. Even within the same sector interests may differ depending on the “level”, i.e. micro-economic and macro-economic interests / perspectives. Sometimes strong regional interests can prevail over national ones and vice versa. Through complex pathways this may again affect the ecosystem services provided by the sea.
    作者:PartiSEApate 阅读:93 下载:0
  • 作为适应性海洋空间规划基础的治理基线(英文)

    A marine spatial planning (MSP) initiative—if to be successful—has to be rooted in a thorough understanding of the tradition and structures of the governance system in the area targeted for the initiative. After decades of a mainly sectoral approach towards maritime affairs, governments began to recognised the need for a governance framework that applies a more integrated approach to maritime policy. The new Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union is only one example for such a changed way of policy and decision making. The assembly of a governance baseline can help to identify the crucial hindering and success factors for the implementation of MSP.
    作者:J Coast Conserv 阅读:96 下载:0
  • 海上船舶交通对海鸟的影响:对海洋保护和空间规划的启示(英文)

    Spatial planning of anthropogenic activities in the offshore zone is currently in progress in many countries worldwide. Most activities in marine ecosystems are in some way related to shipping. Disturbance by ships can be a major threat to birds, through affects on behavior,reproduction, and fitness of individuals in colonies (e.g., Burger 1998, see review in Carney and Sydeman 1999), as well as on foraging or resting habitats (e.g.,Rodgers and Schwikert 2003, Stolen 2003, Kaiser et al.2006 ). However, the effects of ship traffic on seabirds are still too poorly understood to allow for either proper spatial planning or conservation management actions.
    作者:the Ecological Society of America 阅读:103 下载:0
  • BaltSeaPlan报告9:为波美拉尼亚湾和阿科纳盆地制定试点海洋空间计划(英文)

    The Baltic Sea is a dynamic economic region with growing competition between a wide range of sea uses. At the same time limited sea space and the valuable sensitive marine and coastal ecosystem call for a considered approach to future development. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is a tool for facilitating this at various spatial levels. Its purpose is to find solutions for the sustainable use of maritime space balancing social economic and ecological interests in a manner that does justice to all three. MSP achieves this by taking a cooperative and participatory approach involving various stakeholders.
    作者:European Regional Development Fund 阅读:74 下载:0
  • 基于德国北海经验的多种海洋用途、政策领域和行动者背景下的海洋空间规划挑战(英文)

    Today, increasing use intensity and establishment of new sea uses such as offshore wind farming can be observed in coastal and marine waters. This development also increases the pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems. The exclusive economic zone of the German North Sea can serve as an example for this development, in particular illustrating the need to combine multiple uses and societal demands within a given sea area. In order to deal with the resulting conflicts and cumulative impacts,new planning tools and integrated approaches to planning and management are developing. While the sea becomes a contested but at the same time politically recognised area,also conflicts rooted in different perceptions, values and attitudes of coastal people can be observed. In order to deal with the current challenges in marine areas, marine spatial planning and similar tools for integrated planning need to be developed in the form of communication processes,which link diverse sets of information and span a dialogue between groups of society and across spatial scales including the transnational dimension.
    作者:Reg Environ Change 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 评估人类活动造成的栖息地风险,为沿海和海洋空间规划提供信息:伯利兹的示范(英文)

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize.Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of highrisk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses.Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.
    作者:Environmental Research Letters 阅读:76 下载:0
  • 在巴斯克大陆架(比斯开湾)上选择合适区域安装波浪能转换器(WECs)的海洋空间规划方法(英文)

    Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the wave energy production.As a new use of the ocean, a Spatial Planning approach is proposed to provide a mechanism to achieve consensus among the sectors operating at present, together with the identification of the most suitable locations to accommodate the Wave Energy Converters (WECs), in the near future. In this contribution: (a) a methodology for the establishment of a Suitability Index (SI) for WECs installation location selection is proposed; (b) the spatial distribution of the SI is mapped; and finally, (c) the accessible wave energy potential has been calculated for the entire Basque continental shelf. As the SI represents the appropriateness of several locations for WECs installation, while minimizing the conflict with other marine uses, the first step in the development of the analysis involved gathering all such information that may be likely to determine, or influence, the decision-making process. Seventeen information layers (among them 10 technical, 4 environmental, and 3 socioeconomical), corresponding to the identified key factors, including the theoretical wave energy in the study area, were generated to define their spatial distribution. Geographical Information System algorithms were used then in the assessment of the total theoretical energy potential and the accessible theoretical energy potential; these were calculated excluding areas where conflicts with other uses occur, such as navigation regulations or designated Marine Protected Areas.
    作者:Coastal Management 阅读:68 下载:0
  • 用于评估海洋空间规划方案的GIS建模框架:德国专属经济区海上风电场和水产养殖的协同定位(英文)

    The concept of co-location of marine areas receives an increased significance in the light of sustainable development in the already heavily used offshore marine realm. Within this study, different spatial colocation scenarios for the coupling of offshore aquacultures and wind farms are evaluated in order to support efficient and sustainable marine spatial management strategies. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) techniques were combined to index suitable co-sites in the German exclusive economic zone of the North Sea. The MCE was based on criteria such as temperature, salinity or oxygen. In total, 13 possible aquaculture candidates (seaweed, bivalves, fish and crustaceans) were selected for the scenario configuration. The GIS modelling framework proved to be powerful in defining potential co-location sites. The aquaculture candidate oarweed (Laminaria digitata) revealed the highest suitability scores at 10–20 m depth from April to June, followed by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) at 20–30 m depth and dulse (Palmaria palmata) and Sea belt (Saccharina latissima) at 0–10 m depth between April and June. In summary, results showed several wind farms were de facto suitable sites for aquaculture since they exhibited high suitability scores for Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems combining fish species, bivalves and seaweeds. The present results illustrate how synergies may be realised between competing needs of both offshore wind energy and offshore IMTA in the German EEZ of the North Sea. This might offer guidance to stakeholders and assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable sites for pilot projects using IMTA techniques.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:107 下载:0
  • 2018年欧委会研究报告:蓝色增长的海洋空间规划(英文)

    The relation between MSP and Blue Growth is multi-faceted and not yet fully explored. Of course, MSP aims to reduce or avoid conflicts between a variety of economic and noneconomic functions. But it is also a tool to identify and give the suitable room to new and changing spatial uses. MSP may be used to open new economic potentials by fostering synergies between different uses. Against this background, this report aims to provide information on how MSP can help Member States deliver sustainable growth for their maritime economies. It provides Member States with practical guidance in three distinct aspects of MSP: 1) How to develop a vision for maritime space that can be effectively used in MSP? 2) What kind of future trends impact on sector development and how do they influence the MSP process? 3) How can MSP authorities monitor whether they are on the right track with their MSPobjectives?These three distinct aspects were developed as stand-alone documents. In addition, this report lays out the connections between them and some general findings.
    作者:欧盟委员会 阅读:100 下载:0
  • 2003年澳大利亚《大堡礁珊瑚海洋公园海域多用途区划》(英文)

    The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (the Act) provides for the establishment, control, care and development of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (the Marine Park). The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (the Authority) is responsible for the management of the Marine Park.The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 is the primary planning instrument for the conservation and management of the Marine Park.
    作者:DAVID KEMP Minister for the Environment and Heritage 阅读:103 下载:0
  • 2010年英国《克莱德湾海洋空间规划》(英文)

    The Plan provides direction and guidance for the sustainable development of activities, by both the public and private sector, within the Firth of Clyde. The policies in the Plan should not be interpreted in isolation. Instead, the Plan should be interpreted as a single document.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 2006年《英国海洋空间规划—爱尔兰海试点规划》(英文)

    The Department for Environment,Food and Rural affairs(Defra) is seeking to research options for developing,implementing and managing marine spatial planning in UK coastal and offshore waters through a pilot study.
    作者:The Department for Environment,Food and Rural affairs(Defra) 阅读:102 下载:2
  • 2009年德国《联邦北海和波罗的海专属经济区空间规划》(德文)

    Um die zunehmenden Nutzungskonflikte auf dem Meer insbesondere zwischen der sich entwickelnden flächenintensiven OffshoreWindenergienutzung und dem Meeresumweltschutz sowie den herkömmlichen Nutzungen wie der Schifffahrt und der Fischerei koordinierten Lösungen zuzuführen, bedarf die Entwicklung der deutschen ausschließlichen Wirtschaftszone (AWZ) einer im Sinne der Nachhaltigkeit integrativen Betrachtungsweise. Der als Rechtsverordnung aufgestellte Raumordnungsplan legt gemäß § 18a des Raumordnungsgesetzes, der mit dem Gesetz vom 24. Juni 2004 in das Raumordnungsgesetz eingefügt wurde, in der AWZ erstmalig Ziele und Grundsätze der Raumordnung hinsichtlich der wirtschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Nutzung,hinsichtlich der Gewährleistung der Sicherheit und Leichtigkeit der Seeschifffahrt sowie zum Schutz der Meeresumwelt fest.
    作者:德国政府 阅读:87 下载:0
  • 2006年荷兰《国家国土空间战略》(荷兰文)

    De Nota Ruimte is niet voor bange mensen. Dit kabinet nodigt u nadrukkelijk uit het heft in eigen handen te nemen bij het ruimtelijk vormgeven van de ontwikkeling van ons land. U krijgt ‘ruimte voor ontwikkeling’, zoals de titel van de Nota belooft. Kansen staan centraal, niet regels en restricties. Dat vereist ander beleid, maar ook een andere houding van alle betrokkenen. Bij minder nadruk op ordening en meer op ontwikkeling hoort, wat Amerikanen noemen, een ‘can do’-mentaliteit. Wij moeten elkaar stimuleren in inventiviteit en het grijpen van kansen.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》的更新(2014–2015)(英文)

    Norway is a maritime nation. The seas and coastline have shaped the development of Norwegian society and played an important part in forming the Norwegian sense of identity. Norway’s marine areas support a wide range of species and habitats and provide us with valuable resources, some familiar and others that we are still learning about. Many sectors of Norwegian industry and the Norwegian economy are closely linked to the seas, from maritime transport and shipbuilding to fisheries, aquaculture and the petroleum industry.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:75 下载:0
  • 挪威《北海和斯卡格勒克海洋环境的综合管理计划》(2012-2013)(英文)

    The Government’s goal is for Norway to be a pioneer in developing an integrated, ecosystembased management regime for marine areas. The Government will therefore continue to use the system of management plans for sea areas. An overall framework for petroleum activities will be established in the management plan for each sea area.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》的首次更新(2010-2011)(英文)

    该管理计划的目的是为可持续利用源自巴伦支海 - 罗弗敦地区的自然资源和商品提供框架,同时保持该地区生态系统的结构、功能、生产力和多样性。 因此,管理计划是促进价值创造和保持该地区高环境价值的工具。
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:83 下载:0
  • 2018年美国《华盛顿州太平洋海岸海洋空间规划》(英文)

    The marine waters along Washington’s Pacific Coast contain abundant natural resources and diverse habitats that support biological diversity and resilience of the marine ecosystem. These resources support multiple public uses that benefit the economies and cultures of nearby communities as well as the entire state. The citizens of Washington, as well as the Native American tribes that have rich histories and treaty-protected interests along the coast, strongly depend upon marine resources and will continue to do so into the future.
    作者:华盛顿州政府 阅读:120 下载:0
  • 2012年英国《北海区域海洋空间规划的预备行动》(英文)

    MASPNOSE is a preparatory action on Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the North Sea.MASPNOSE facilitated two concrete, cross-border MSP case studies on the North Sea: 1) the Belgian-Dutch collaboration on the Thornton Bank in the southern North Sea, and 2) the development of an international fisheries management plan for the Dogger Bank in the central North Sea. During the MASPNOSE project several lessons were learned on crossborder MSP that can be summarized in the following key messages:
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:0
  • 2009年《挪威海综合管理规划》(英语)

    The Norwegian Sea has a rich and varied natural environment that supports high biological production. There are substantial fisheries throughout the year, the most important of which are for Norwegian spring-spawning herring, blue whiting, Northeast Arctic saithe and Northeast Atlantic mackerel. There are also large petroleum deposits in the Norwegian Sea. In September 2009, 12 fields were on stream, and a further two – Morvin and Skarv – were under development but had not yet started production. There is a possibility that wind farms will be established in the Norwegian Sea. The near-shore areas are important in terms of transport. In addition, the Norwegian Sea is an important area for tourism based on enjoyment of the natural environment and for recreational fishing.
    作者:挪威政府 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 2006年挪威《巴伦支海和罗弗敦群岛水域综合管理规划》(英语)

    The ecosystems of the Barents Sea and the sea areas off the Lofoten Islands are of very high environmental value and are rich in living natural resources that are the basis for a considerable level of economic activity. There are major stocks of cod, herring and capelin in the area, and large cold-water coral reefs and seabird colonies of international importance. By international standards, the state of these ecosystems is generally good today, and the area covered by the management plan can be characterised as clean and rich in resources. The Government considers it very important to safeguard the basic structure and functioning of the ecosystems of this area in the long term, so that they continue to be clean, rich and productive.
    作者:挪威环境部 阅读:90 下载:0
  • 2009年美国《有效海岸带和海洋空间规划临时框架》(英语)

    Coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) is one of the nine priority objectives proposed in the Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force (Task Force) of September 10, 2009 (Interim Report). This framework for CMSP in the United States provides a definition of CMSP, identifies the reasons for engaging in CMSP, and describes its geographic scope. It articulates national CMSP goals and guiding principles that would be adhered to in CMSP efforts and the eventual development and implementation of coastal and marine spatial plans (CMS Plans). In addition, this framework describes how CMSP and CMS Plans would be regional in scope and developed cooperatively among Federal, State, tribal, local authorities, and regional governance structures, with substantial stakeholder and public input.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 阅读:130 下载:0
  • 2016年苏格兰彭特兰湾和奥克尼郡水域海洋空间计划(英文)

    This pilot Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan is the result of a successful collaboration between Marine Scotland, Orkney Islands Council and the Highland Council. This working group undertook, in advance of statutory regional marine plans, a pilot process for setting up a planning policy framework.
    作者:苏格兰政府 阅读:101 下载:0
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(中英对照)

    本文对海洋规划的潜在影响进行了大量定性讨论。本文讨论了在没有规划的情况下当前和可预期未来的海洋开发,并概述了海洋规划如何改变未来的发展。除了对某些行政费用的估算之外,本文基本上是定性讨论。虽然本文不是技术性的分析文件,但它为将来的分析提供了有用信息。本文仅评估与东部海洋规划区域有关的影响,并未考虑与整个海洋规划系统有关的影响。东部海洋规划区域重点意味着这不能用作其他海洋规划区域或整个海洋规划系统的成本和效益假设的基础。
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:132 下载:8
  • 对2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划的分析(英文)

    This document provides a largely qualitative discussion of potential impacts of the marine plans. It discusses current and expected future marine development in the absence of plans and provides an overview of how marine plans might alter future development. It is a largely qualitative discussion with the exception of estimates for some administrative costs. While not a technical, analytical document, it provides useful information for future analysis. This document assesses impacts that solely relate to the East Marine Plan areas and does not consider impacts that relate to the marine planning system as a whole. Its East Marine Plan area focus means it cannot be used as a basis for assumptions about costs and benefits in other marine plan areas, or about the marine planning system as a whole.
    作者:Marine Management Organisation 阅读:116 下载:1
  • 2014年英国东部海岸及海域海洋规划之执行纲要(英文)

    The seas surrounding the United Kingdom are vitally important to our nation. Our marine economy is currently worth more than £49 billion a year and has the potential to grow significantly. The marine environment is also home to over 8000 species, including some of the world’s most important seabird populations, which we must protect for future generations.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:113 下载:8
  • 2014年北海比利时区域海洋空间规划(中英对照)

    早在2003年,北海部长Johan Vande Lanotte就北海比利时区域(BPNS)的空间规划提出倡议。该倡议在“总体规划”中规定了某些活动和用途。其中,该总体规划建立了可再生能源领域。在随后的几年中,海洋空间规划成为欧洲议程上的一个重要议题。2008年,欧盟委员会发布了“海洋空间规划路线图:在欧盟实现共同原则”的通讯。这对成员国的海洋空间规划起到了重要的推动作用。联合国教科文组织国际奥委会还通过2009年出版的“海洋空间规划:逐步实现基于生态系统的管理方法”推广海洋空间规划。
    作者:比利时政府 阅读:134 下载:4
  • 2014年北海比利时区域海洋空间规划(英文)

    Already in 2003, Minister of the North Sea Johan Vande Lanotte took an initiative for spatial planning of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS). This initiative laid down certain activities and uses in a ‘Masterplan’2. Among others, this Masterplan established the area for renewable energy. In the years that followed, maritime spatial planning became an important item on the European agenda. In 2008, the European Commission issued the Communication, “Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU”3. This constituted a significant stimulus for maritime spatial planning in the Member States.
    作者:比利时政府 阅读:125 下载:4
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  • DNV《面向2050年的海事展望》(英文)

    这份80页的报告旨在帮助航运业应对面临的双重挑战:一是日益严格的气候变化目标和法规,二是关于未来燃料选择、技术和供应的不确定性。
    作者:DNV 阅读:17 下载:0
  • 为海洋空间规划绘制渔业地图:专用渔船监测系统 (VMS)、海洋保护和近海可再生能源(英文)

    2005 年至 2008 年 ICES 分部 VIIe-h 中的船舶监测系统 (VMS) 数据用于评估英吉利海峡西部及其周围捕鱼活动的分布和强度,英吉利海峡是地球上使用最密集的海域之一。对英国大型(415 m 长)渔船船队的分布进行了分析,并发现了明显的特定渔具活动的时间和空间差异。移动底层齿轮在研究区域具有最高的强度和最广泛的活动分布,因此可能会产生最广泛的生态系统影响。两个拟议的渔业关闭的潜在影响;描述了一个计划中的波浪能测试设施(Wave Hub)和一个候选的近海海洋保护区(Haig Fras)。地图表明,如果将移动底层渔具船队排除在这些提议的关闭之外,它们几乎不会受到影响,但如果将静态渔具船队排除在外,这可能会导致某些船只流离失所,增加对其他岩石地和其他渔民的捕捞压力。通过使用高分辨率的特定渔具活动数据,可以改进对渔业迁移影响的预测。这项研究表明,VMS 可以提供此类数据的宝贵来源,前提是渔业管理人员和科学家可以获得渔具信息。 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data from 2005 to 2008 in ICES Divisions VIIe-h were used to assess the distribution and intensity of fishing activity in and around the western English Channel, one of the most intensively used marine areas on the planet. The distribution of the UK fleet of large (415 m length) fishing vessels was analysed and clear gear-specific temporal and spatial differences in activity were found. Mobile demersal gears had the highest intensity and widest distribution of activity in the study area, and so might be expected to have the most widespread ecosystem-level impacts. The potential effects of two proposed fisheries closures; a planned wave energy testing facility (Wave Hub) and a candidate offshore Marine Protected Area (Haig Fras) are described. Maps indicate that mobile demersal gear fleets would be little affected if they were excluded from these proposed closures, but if the static gear fleets were excluded this would likely result in displacement of certain vessels, increasing fishing pressure on other rocky grounds and other fishers. Predictions concerning the effects of fisheries displacement can be improved through the use of high-resolution gear-specific activity data. This study shows that VMS can provide an invaluable source of such data, provided that gear information is made available to fisheries managers and scientists.
    作者:Marine Policy 阅读:81 下载:0
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  • 波罗的海海洋资源创新和可持续利用评估(英文)

    Innovative approaches to the sustainable use of marine resources have recently received more and more attention as part of new European Commission initiatives.As one of the operational proposals under the Innovation Union and Resource Efficient Europe flagships of the e u 2 020 strategy, the strategy for a sustainable bioeconomy in Europe was adopted by the European Commission in February 2012. It aims towards the development of a more innovative and low-emissions economy, which uses biological resources from the land and sea as inputs to food and feed, industrial and energy production as well as bio-based industrial and environmental protection processes. The strategy is coupled with the Commission’s Integrated Maritime Policy. More specifically w ith the "Blue Growth” initiative, which aims to harness the untapped potential of Europe’s oceans, seas and coasts for job and growth whilst safeguarding the services healthy and resilient marine and coastal ecosystems provide. It is therefore linked w ith the e u Marine Strategy Framework Directive to reach good environmental status by 2021.
    作者:Maritime Institute in Gda?sk 阅读:101 下载:0
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  • 1998年《澳大利亚国家海洋政策》(英文)

    Australia’s Oceans Policy sets in place the framework for integrated and ecosystem-based planning and management for all of Australia’s marine jurisdictions. It includes a vision, a series of goals and principles and policy guidance for a national Oceans Policy. Building on existing effective sectoral and jurisdictional mechanisms, it promotes ecologicallysustainable development of the resources of our oceans and the encouragement of internationally competitive marine industries, while ensuring the protection of marine biological diversity.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2010年《美国国家海洋政策》(英文)

    The ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes provide jobs, food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical roles in our Nation's transportation, economy, and trade, as well as the global mobility of our Armed Forces and the maintenance of international peace and security. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and resulting environmental crisis is a stark reminder of how vulnerable our marine environments are, and how much communities and the Nation rely on healthy and resilient ocean and coastal ecosystems. America's stewardship of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes is intrinsically linked to environmental sustainability, human health and well-being, national prosperity, adaptation to climate and other environmental changes, social justice, international diplomacy, and national and homeland security.
    作者:THE WHITE HOUSE 阅读:98 下载:0
  • 2011年《英国海洋政策宣言》(英文)

    This Marine Policy Statement (MPS) is the framework for preparing Marine Plans and taking decisions affecting the marine environment. It will contribute to the achievement of sustainable development in the United Kingdom marine area. It has been prepared and adopted for the purposes of section 44 of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009.
    作者:英国政府 阅读:102 下载:0
  • 2005年《欧盟海洋环境策略纲要》(英文)

    The marine environment is a precious asset. Oceans and seas provide 99% of the available living space on the planet, cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of the biosphere and consequently contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems play a key role in climate and weather patterns. Indispensable to life itself, the marine environment is also a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life.
    作者:COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 阅读:114 下载:0
  • 1979年澳大利亚《海岸和解书》(英文)

    At the Premiers Conference on 29 June 1979, the Commonwealth and the States completed an agreement of great importance for the settlement of contentious and complex offshore constitutional issues. The agreement marked the solution of a fundamental problem that has bedevilled Commonwealth-State relations, and represents a major achievement of the policy of co-operative federalism.
    作者:澳大利亚政府 阅读:104 下载:0
  • 1972年《美国海岸带管理法》(英文)

    The term ‘‘coastal zone’’ means the coastal waters (including the lands therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes, islands, transitional and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends, in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 U.S.C. 749), the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 U.S.C. 1705), as applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent necessary to control shorelands, the uses of which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise. Excluded from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government, its officers or agents.
    作者:美国国会 阅读:123 下载:0
  • 2006年荷兰《国家国土空间战略》(荷兰文)

    De Nota Ruimte is niet voor bange mensen. Dit kabinet nodigt u nadrukkelijk uit het heft in eigen handen te nemen bij het ruimtelijk vormgeven van de ontwikkeling van ons land. U krijgt ‘ruimte voor ontwikkeling’, zoals de titel van de Nota belooft. Kansen staan centraal, niet regels en restricties. Dat vereist ander beleid, maar ook een andere houding van alle betrokkenen. Bij minder nadruk op ordening en meer op ontwikkeling hoort, wat Amerikanen noemen, een ‘can do’-mentaliteit. Wij moeten elkaar stimuleren in inventiviteit en het grijpen van kansen.
    作者:荷兰住房、空间规划和环境部 阅读:67 下载:0
  • 2009年《挪威海综合管理规划》(英语)

    The Norwegian Sea has a rich and varied natural environment that supports high biological production. There are substantial fisheries throughout the year, the most important of which are for Norwegian spring-spawning herring, blue whiting, Northeast Arctic saithe and Northeast Atlantic mackerel. There are also large petroleum deposits in the Norwegian Sea. In September 2009, 12 fields were on stream, and a further two – Morvin and Skarv – were under development but had not yet started production. There is a possibility that wind farms will be established in the Norwegian Sea. The near-shore areas are important in terms of transport. In addition, the Norwegian Sea is an important area for tourism based on enjoyment of the natural environment and for recreational fishing.
    作者:挪威政府 阅读:117 下载:0
  • 美国《俄勒冈州领海计划(1994年)》(英文)

    Ocean planning in Oregon has evolved from strong public interests in coastal use and protection that began long before statehood This historic concern for the coast has involved several Governors, the Oregon Legislature, and, as always, a vocal and active public.
    作者:俄勒冈州政府 阅读:131 下载:0
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