——Effects of ship traffic on seabirds in offshore waters: Implications for marine conservation and spatial planning
Spatial planning of anthropogenic activities in the offshore zone is currently in progress in many countries worldwide. Most activities in marine ecosystems are in some way related to shipping. Disturbance by ships can be a major threat to birds, through affects on behavior,reproduction, and fitness of individuals in colonies (e.g., Burger 1998, see review in Carney and Sydeman 1999), as well as on foraging or resting habitats (e.g.,Rodgers and Schwikert 2003, Stolen 2003, Kaiser et al.2006 ). However, the effects of ship traffic on seabirds are still too poorly understood to allow for either proper spatial planning or conservation management actions.